Antropometry in HIV Patients: Effects of Recombinant Human Growth Hormone

  • Livio Luzi
  • Ileana Terruzzi
  • Stefano Benedini


Patients with HIV infection treated with protease inhibitors (PIs) drugs for a long period have a prolonged life expectancy and an improvement of quality of life. Often, HIV-patients on PIs develop a syndrome characterized by peripheral lipoatrophy, truncal fat accumulation, hyperlipemia and insulin resistance. In HIV-1 patients undergoing antiretroviral treatment, lipodystrophy is associated with peripheral fat wasting and central adiposity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and increased intramuscular fat accumulation. In HIV lipodystrophy fat distribution changes are heterogeneous and can include reduced subcutaneous fat and increased visceral fat. In literature there are evidences showing overnight growth hormone (GH) secretion and pulse amplitude reduction in patients with HIV lipodystrophy, in response to standard GH stimulation test. Excess accumulation of visceral fat with increasing of intra-abdominal adiposity (central obesity) is also a typical feature of patients with GH deficiency. Recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) can be a useful treatment to diminish excess visceral fat. Up to day there are evidences that GH therapy in HIV-infected patients with syndromes of central fat accumulation show a significant decrease of body fat. In this chapter, we discuss the anthropometry of lipodystrophy in HIV patients and the indication of rhGH treatment in HIV-related lipodystrophy.


Growth Hormone Growth Hormone Deficiency Growth Hormone Treatment Growth Hormone Therapy Growth Hormone Concentration 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Apo B

Apolipoprotein B


11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1


Bone mineral density


Computer tomography


Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry


Free fatty acids




Growth hormone




GH-binding protein


GH receptor


Growth hormone releasing hormone


Glucose transporter 4


Glucocorticoid receptor


Growth receptor binding protein 2


Highly active antiretroviral therapy


High Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol


Immunodeficiency virus


3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A


Intermediate density Lipoprotein


Insulin-like growth factor I


Insulin-like growth factor -binding protein 3


Janus Activated Kinase

Lp (a)

Lipoprotein (a)


Lipoprotein lipase


Mitogen-activated protein kinase


Monocyte chemotactic protein-1


Magnetic resonance imaging


Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors


Protease inhibitors (drugs)


Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase


Recombinant human growth hormone


Src (it is short form for sarcoma) homology domain containing


Suppressor of cytokine signaling


Son of sevenless


Signal transducer and activator of transcription factors


Total cholesterol




Tumor necrosis factor-α


Very Low Density Lipoprotein



This article has been reproduced with permission from Wolters Kluwer Health | Adis (see Benedini S, Terruzzi I, Lazzarin A, Luzi L. Recombinant human growth hormone: rationale for use in the treatment of HIV-associated lipodystrophy. BioDrugs. 2008;22(2):101–12.). © Adis Data Information BV 2008. All rights reserved.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Head Metabolism Research CentreIRCCS Policlinico San Donato MilaneseMilanItaly
  2. 2.Department of Sport Sciences, Nutrition and Health, Faculty of Exercise SciencesUniversity of MilanMilanItaly

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