Changes in Anthropometric Measures in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

  • Chi Chiu Mok


Systemic lupus erythematosus is a chronic multi-systemic autoimmune disease that predominantly affects women of reproductive age. Despite the emergence of novel therapeutics, the main stay of systemic lupus erythematosus treatment remains systemic glucocorticoids. High-dose or long-term glucocorticoid administration is associated with bone demineralization and a profound change in body composition. Chronic use of glucocorticoids in children and adolescents retards growth velocity and leads to short adult body height. Although elevation of proinflammatory cytokines as a result of disease activity, imbalanced nutrition, lack of physical activity due to musculoskeletal complications, avoidance of sunshine and hormonal disturbances may contribute to a loss of lean body mass and bone mineral content, the chief mechanism for a change in fat distribution, abdominal obesity, loss of muscle mass and growth retardation in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus is glucocorticoid therapy. This chapter summarizes data on measurement of fat and lean body mass in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and its relationship with bone mineral density.


Obesity Toxicity Arthritis Estrogen Osteoporosis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Apo A1

Apolipoprotein A1

Apo B

Apolipoprotein B


Adult Treatment Panel III


Body mass index


Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry


High density lipoprotein


High sensitivity C-reactive protein


Insulin growth factor 1




National Cholesterol Education Program


Systemic lupus erythematosus


Tumor necrosis factor α


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of MedicineTuen Mun HospitalHong KongSAR, China
  2. 2.Center for Assessment and Treatment of Rheumatic DiseasesPok Oi HospitalHong KongChina

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