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Changes in Anthropometric Measures in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

  • Chi Chiu Mok
Chapter

Abstract

Systemic lupus erythematosus is a chronic multi-systemic autoimmune disease that predominantly affects women of reproductive age. Despite the emergence of novel therapeutics, the main stay of systemic lupus erythematosus treatment remains systemic glucocorticoids. High-dose or long-term glucocorticoid administration is associated with bone demineralization and a profound change in body composition. Chronic use of glucocorticoids in children and adolescents retards growth velocity and leads to short adult body height. Although elevation of proinflammatory cytokines as a result of disease activity, imbalanced nutrition, lack of physical activity due to musculoskeletal complications, avoidance of sunshine and hormonal disturbances may contribute to a loss of lean body mass and bone mineral content, the chief mechanism for a change in fat distribution, abdominal obesity, loss of muscle mass and growth retardation in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus is glucocorticoid therapy. This chapter summarizes data on measurement of fat and lean body mass in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and its relationship with bone mineral density.

Keywords

Obesity Toxicity Arthritis Estrogen Osteoporosis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations

Apo A1

Apolipoprotein A1

Apo B

Apolipoprotein B

ATPIII

Adult Treatment Panel III

BMI

Body mass index

DXA

Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry

HDL

High density lipoprotein

hsCRP

High sensitivity C-reactive protein

IGF-1

Insulin growth factor 1

IL-6

Interleukin-6

NCEP

National Cholesterol Education Program

SLE

Systemic lupus erythematosus

TNF-α

Tumor necrosis factor α

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of MedicineTuen Mun HospitalHong KongSAR, China
  2. 2.Center for Assessment and Treatment of Rheumatic DiseasesPok Oi HospitalHong KongChina

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