The Meaning of Muscle Mass for Health, Disease, and Strength Exercises
Skeletal muscle is the largest organ of the mature body having major contributions to endogenous amino acid supply, insulin-dependent glucose removal and total body energy expenditure. Muscle mass is a determinant of metabolic homeostasis, physical strength and daily living activities. Higher lean mass equates to higher nutritional reserve and strength whereas lower muscle mass (sarcopenia) is a major contributor to disability and increased mortality. The definition of sarcopenia is arbitrary and its diagnosis is dependent on the methodology of muscle mass assessment, reference groups and cut off points. Methods used to assess muscle mass such as anthropometry, BIA or DXA are unable to distinguish aqueous and non aqueous components of the muscle mass whereas this is accomplished with the more expensive CT or MRI. Data are referred as kg of muscle mass, % of the body mass or correcting either appendicular or total muscle mass for height (kg/m2). The most used data comes from either DXA or BIA assessment in male and female populations of Rosseta, New Mexico (NM Elder Health Survey) and NHANES III studies with cut off points at – 2 SD for both genders. There is no cut off for hypertrophic-muscle mass. There are also no consensual criteria for defining sarcopenic-obesity or the fat frailty, the worse condition with regard to the difficulties of performing physical tasks. For this purpose muscle mass must be associated with some type of functional test (strength and power) to assess muscle quality. This chapter highlights the roles of muscle mass, its measurements and variations in health and diseases, and the lack of data for correctly interpreting muscle mass and function in the presence of obesity and strength exercises.
KeywordsMuscle Strength Muscle Mass Skeletal Muscle Mass Functional Electrical Stimulation Muscle Quality
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome
Appendicular skeletal muscle mass
Dual X-ray absorptiometry
Magnetic resonance imaging
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Skeletal mass index
United States of America
- VO2 max
Maximum aerobic capacity
To the graduate students Damiana T. Pierine and Rodrigo Minoru Manda for their collaborative work in organizing the domestic data and editing the manuscript.
- Baumgartner RN, Waters DL. In: Pathy MSJ, editors. Sarcopenia and sarcopenic-obesity. London, Wiley, 2006. p. 909–33.Google Scholar
- Demling RH. In: Molnar JA editors. Pharmacologic manipulation of the healing wound: the role of hormones. Boca RatonCRC Press/Taylor & Francis/Group LLC; 2006. p. 329.Google Scholar
- Elia M. In: Kinney JM Tucker HN, editors. Organ and tissue contribution to metabolic rate. New York, Raven Press Ltd. 1992. p. 61–79.Google Scholar
- U.S.CensusBureau. 2000. Available from: http://www.census.gov/population/projections/nation/summary/np-t3-e.txt and http://www.census.gov/population/projections/nation/summary/np-t3-f.txt. Accessed 10 July 2009.