Impact of Paternal Exposure to Gonadotoxins on Embryo and Offspring and the Male Evaluation

  • Kathleen Hwang
  • Paul Gittens
  • Desiderio AvilaJr.
  • Larry I. Lipshultz


There are several routes of exposure to gonadotoxins for the male. Exposures originate from lifestyle choices, medications, and treatment for malignancies, as well as occupational and chemical hazards. Regardless of the route, the impact of paternal exposure to gonadotoxins on subsequent fertility is significant as it not only affects the individual, but may also affect future offspring. Given the increasing popularity of in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and the vast numbers of procedures performed each year throughout the world, continued research on the safety of IVF/ICSI and IVF itself is crucial. Patients can only truly give informed consent when they are properly educated as to all the associated risks.


Gonadotoxin effect on embryo and offspring Chemotherapy and radiation effects on male fertility Cancer treatment effects on gonads 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kathleen Hwang
    • 1
  • Paul Gittens
    • 1
  • Desiderio AvilaJr.
    • 1
  • Larry I. Lipshultz
    • 2
  1. 1.Scott Department of UrologyBaylor College of MedicineHoustonUSA
  2. 2.Scott Department of UrologyBaylor College of MedicineHoustonUSA

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