Directional Freezing of Reproductive Cells, Tissues, and Organs



The multi thermal gradient technique is based on the principles of directional freezing. The directional freezing process is based on controlling the ice crystal propagation through the sample by regulating the velocity of the sample through a predetermined thermal gradient. The directional freezing method permits a very precise and uniform cooling rate, which has allowed for successful freezing in the absence of liquid cryoprotectant agent (CPA). Ice formation occurs at the edge of the sample (seeding is initiated), and as the sample is pushed through the thermal gradient, the ice crystals propagate in opposite direction to the sample movement. This has enabled the successful cryopreservation of what has previously been regarded as impossible such as wild animal’s sperm, human cartilage tissue, and large organs (sheep and human ovaries, porcine liver, and rat hearts).


Multi thermal gradient technique Directional freezing Sperm freezing Whole ovary freezing Freeze-drying of cells reproduction 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Core DynamicsNess ZionaIsrael

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