Advertisement

Polarization Microscopy

Chapter

Abstract

The potential of an embryo to implant is a key element for the success in assisted reproduction. Morphological criteria of oocytes and embryos and developmental progression during the preimplantation phase were considered as a strong predictor for embryo implantation. Recently, polarization light microscopy has enabled the detection of structures within oocytes which possess a natural birefringence. Birefringence analysis of living human oocytes represents a new approach in assessing oocyte viability and embryo potential. The present knowledge of birefringence imaging will be summarized especially in regard to their impact on assisted reproduction.

Keywords

Polarization microscopy Zona Spindle Oocyte Birefringence 

References

  1. 1.
    Schmidt WJ. Die Bausteine des Tierkörpers in polarisiertem Licht. Bonn: Cohen; 1924.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Inoué S. Polarization optical studies of the mitotic spindle. I. The demonstration of spindle fibers in living cells. Chromosoma. 1953;5:487–500.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Swann MM, Mitchison JM. Refinements in polarized light microscopy. J Exp Biol. 1950;27:226–37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sato H, Ellis GW, Inoué S. Microtubular origin of mitotic spindle form birefringence: demonstration of the applicability of Wiener’s equation. J Cell Biol. 1975;67:501–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Inoué S. Video image processing greatly enhances contrast, quality and speed in polarization-based microscopy. J Cell Biol. 1981;89:346–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Engelmann TW. Contractilität und Dopperbrechung. Pflugers Arch. 1875;11:432–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Schmidt WJ. Die Doppelbrechung von Karyoplasma, Zytoplasma und Metaplasma. Berlin: Bornträger; 1937.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Oldenbourg R, Mei G. New polarized light microscope with precision universal compensator. J Microsc. 1995;180:140–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Keefe D, Tran P, Pellegrini C, Oldenbourg R. Polarized light microscopy and digital image processing identify a multilaminar structure of the hamster zona pellucida. Hum Reprod. 1997;12:1250–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Silva CS, Kapura K, Oldenbourg R, Keefe DL. The first polar body does not predict accurately the location of the metaphase II meiotic spindle in mammalian oocytes. Fertil Steril. 1999;71:719–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Rienzi L, Martinez F, Ubaldi F, et al. Polscope analysis of meiotic spindle changes in living metaphase II human oocytes during the freezing and thawing procedures. Hum Reprod. 2004;19:655–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Montag M, Schimming T, van der Ven H. Spindle imaging in human oocytes: the impact of the meiotic cell cycle. Reprod Biomed Online. 2006;12:442–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Rienzi L, Ubaldi F, Martinez F, et al. Relationship between meiotic spindle location with regard to polar body position and oocyte developmental potential after ICSI. Hum Reprod. 2003;18:1289–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Cooke S, Tyler JP, Driscoll GL. Meiotic spindle location and identification and its effect on embryonic cleavage plane and early development. Hum Reprod. 2003;18:2397–405.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Taylor TH, Chang CC, Elliott T, et al. Effect of denuding on polar body position in in-vitro matured oocytes. Reprod Biomed Online. 2008;17:515–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Petersen C, Oliveira JBA, Mauri AL, et al. Relationship between visualization of meiotic spindle in human oocytes and ICSI outcomes: a meta-analysis. Reprod Biomed Online. 2009;18:235–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bianchi V, Coticchio G, Fava L, et al. Meiotic spindle imaging in human oocytes frozen with a slow freezing procedure involving high sucrose concentration. Hum Reprod. 2005;20:1078–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sereni E, Sciajno R, Fava L, et al. A polscope evaluation of meiotic spindle dynamics in frozen-thawed oocytes. Reprod Biomed Online. 2009;19:191–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Chen CK, Wang CW, Tsai WJ, et al. Evaluation of meiotic spindles in thawed oocytes after vitrification using polarized light microscopy. Fertil Steril. 2004;82:666–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Larman MG, Minasi MG, Rienzi L, Gardner DK. Maintenance of the meiotic spindle during vitrification in human and mouse oocytes. Reprod Biomed Online. 2007;15:692–700.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hyun CS, Cha JH, Son WY, et al. Optimal ICSI timing after the first polar body extrusion in in vitro matured human oocytes. Hum Reprod. 2007;22:1991–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sun XF, Zhang WH, Chen XJ. Spindle dynamics in living mouse oocytes during meiotic maturation, aging, cooling and overheating: a study by polarized light microscopy. Zygote. 2004;12:241–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Wang WH, Keefe DL. Prediction of chromosome misalignment among in vitro matured human oocytes by spindle imaging with the polscope. Fertil Steril. 2002;78:1077–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Fang C, Tang M, Li T, et al. Visualization of meiotic spindle and subsequent embryo development in in vitro and in vivo matured human oocytes. J Assist Reprod Genet. 2007;24:547–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Wang WH, Meng L, Hackett RJ, et al. Limited recovery of meiotic spindles in living human oocytes after cooling-rewarming observed using polarized light microscopy. Hum Reprod. 2001;16:2374–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Montag M, van der Ven H. Oocyte assessment and embryo viability prediction: birefringence imaging. Reprod Biomed Online. 2008;17:454–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Pelletier C, Keefe DL, Trimarchi JR. Noninvasive polarized light microscopy quantitatively distinguishes the multilaminar structure of the zona pellucida of living human eggs and embryos. Fertil Steril. 2004;81:850–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ten J, Mendiola J, Vioque J, et al. Donor oocyte dysmorphisms and their influence on fertilization and embryo quality. Reprod Biomed Online. 2007;14:40–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Shen Y, Stalf T, Mehnert C, et al. High magnitude of light retardation by the zona pellucida is associated with conception cycles. Hum Reprod. 2005;20:1596–606.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Rama Raju GA, Prakash GJ, Krishna KM, Madan K. Meiotic spindle and zona pellucida characteristics as predictors of embryonic development: a preliminary study using polscope imaging. Reprod Biomed Online. 2007;14:166–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Montag M, Schimming T, Köster M, et al. Oocyte zona birefringence intensity is associated with embryonic implantation potential in ICSI cycles. Reprod Biomed Online. 2008;16:239–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Frattarelli JL, Miller KA, Fletcher-Holmes DW, et al. The use of quantitative birefringence imaging to assess oocyte competence. Hum Reprod. 2007;22 Suppl 1:i166.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Ebner T, Balaban B, Moser M, et al. Automatic user-independent zona pellucida imaging at the oocyte stage allows for the prediction of preimplantation development. Fertil Steril. 2010;94(3):913–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Madaschi C, Aoki T, de Almeida Ferreira Braga DP, et al. Zona pellucida birefringence score and meiotic spindle visualization in relation to embryo development and ICSI outcomes. Reprod Biomed Online. 2009;18:681–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Van der Ven K, Montag M, Drengner C, et al. Differential gene expression profiles in cells of the corona radiata and outer cumulus oophorus in relation to oocyte competence. Hum Reprod. 2009;24 Suppl 1:i32.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Gianaroli L, Magli MC, Collodel G, et al. Sperm head’s birefringence: a new criterion for selection? Fertil Steril. 2008;90:104–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Gianaroli L, Magli MC, Ferraretti A, et al. Birefringence characteristics in sperm heads allow for the selection of reacted spermatozoa for intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Fertil Steril. 2010;93(3):807–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Markus Montag
    • 1
  • Maria Köster
    • 2
  • Hans van der Ven
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Gynecological EndocrinologyFertility Disorders University of HeidelbergHeidelbergGermany
  2. 2.Department of Gynecological Endocrinology and Reproductive MedicineUniversity of BonnBonnGermany

Personalised recommendations