Law Zero: A robot may not injure humanity, or, through inaction, allow humanity to come to harm.

Law One: A robot may not injure a human being, or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm, unless this would violate a higher order law.

Law Two: A robot must obey orders given it by human beings, except where such orders would conflict with a higher order law.

Law Three: A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with a higher order law.


Reference Frame Coordinate Frame Computer Numerical Control Industrial Robot Revolute Joint 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

  1. Asimov, I., 1950, I, Robot, Doubleday & Company, Inc., New York.Google Scholar
  2. Aspragathos, N. A., and Dimitros, J. K., 1998, A comparative study of three methods for robot kinematics, IEEE Transaction on Systems, Man and Cybernetic-PART B: CYBERNETICS, 28 (2), 115-145.Google Scholar
  3. Chernousko, F. L., Bolotnik, N. N., and Gradetsky, V. G., 1994, Manipulation Robots: Dynamics, Control, and Optimization, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.Google Scholar
  4. Denavit, J., and Hartenberg, R. S., 1955, A kinematic notation for lowerpair mechanisms based on matrices, Journal of Applied Mechanics, 22 (2), 215-221.MATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  5. Dugas, R., 1995, A History of Mechanics (English translation), Switzerland, Editions du Griffon, Central Book Co., New York.Google Scholar
  6. Erdman, A. G., 1993, Modern Kinematics: Developed in the Last Forty Years, John Wiley & Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  7. Fahimi, F., 2009, Autonomous Robots: Mdeling, Path Planing, and Control, Springer, New York.Google Scholar
  8. Hunt, K. H., 1978, Kinematic Geometry of Mechanisms, Oxford University Press, London.MATHGoogle Scholar
  9. Milne, E. A., 1948, Vectorial Mechanics, Methuen & Co. LTD., London.Google Scholar
  10. Niku, S. B., 2001, Introduction to Robotics: Analysis, Systems, Applications, Prentice Hall, New Jersey.Google Scholar
  11. Rosheim, M. E., 1994, Robot Evolution: The Development of Anthrobotics, John Wiley & Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  12. Shahinpoor, M., 1987, A Robot Engineering Textbook, Harper and Row Publishers, New York and London.Google Scholar
  13. Tsai, L. W., 1999, Robot Analysis, John Wiley & Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  14. Veit, S., 1992, Whatever happened to … personal robots?, The Computer Shopper, 12 (11), 794-795.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Aerospace, Mechanical, and Manufacturing EngineeringRMIT UniversityMelbourneAustralia

Personalised recommendations