Racial Disparities in HIV and Liver Disease

  • Nyingi M. Kemmer


Based on the recent Center of Disease Control (CDC) report, an estimated 1.1 million persons in the USA are infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Several US-based population studies have consistently shown a significant ethnic variation in HIV prevalence, with ethnic minorities accounting for about 70% of those living with HIV. In 1997, for the purposes of federal statistics reporting, the Office of Management and Budget revised the classification of individuals by race and ethnicity. The revision identified five racial and two ethnic groups. The racial categories are as follows: (1) White, (2) Black or African American, (3) Asian, (4) Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander, and (5) American Indian or Alaskan Native; the ethnic categories are as follows: (1) Hispanic or Latino and (2) non-Hispanic/Latino. Owing to the lack of consistency in the classification across published studies, in this review ethnicity and race are used interchangeably. Ethnicity/race will be categorized as (1) White or Caucasian, (2) Black or African American, (3) Hispanic or Latino, (4) Asian, and (5) others.


Human Immunodeficiency Virus Sustained Virologic Response African American Human Immunodeficiency Virus Population Human Immunodeficiency Virus Coinfection 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Internal MedicineUniversity of CincinnatiCincinnatiUSA

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