Epidemiology of Liver Disease in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Persons



In the era of combination antiretroviral therapy (CART) and improved survival [1], liver disease has become a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected persons [2–4]. The term “liver disease” encompasses a wide spectrum, ranging from asymptomatic mild elevations of liver enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase, AST; alanine aminotransferase, ALT; alkaline phosphatase, ALP) to cirrhosis and end stage liver disease with all its complications (e.g., ascites, esophageal varices, hepatic encephalopathy).


Hepatic Encephalopathy Hepatic Steatosis Nodular Regenerative Hyperplasia Liver Related Death Liver Fibrosis Progression 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Medicine/Division of Infectious DiseasesUniversity of PittsburghPittsburgUSA

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