Hepatitis B Virus: Replication, Mutation, and Evolution

  • Amy C. Sherman
  • Shyam Kottilil


Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) is a DNA virus that utilizes a complex life cycle to replicate via an RNA intermediate transcript with the help of reverse transcriptase enzyme. Many steps in the life cycle of HBV have not been clearly understood mainly because of the lack of availability of culture systems that are permissive to full-length HBV genome replication. Chronic HBV infection can lead to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Effective treatments are available for chronic HBV that has been shown to significantly lower morbidity and mortality. However, the effectiveness of antiviral therapy is hampered by the development of mutations in the reverse transcriptase resulting in progressive liver disease. Mutagenesis also happens in the presence of host immune response and has resulted in the evolution of HBV across various species (avian, primate, and human) and geographical regions. This review focuses on a concise summary of HBV replication cycle, mutagenesis, and evolution.


Adefovir Dipivoxil Subviral Particle Reverse Transcription Process Cell Signal Transduction Pathway 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Laboratory ImmunoregulationNational Institute of Allergy and Infectious DiseasesBethesdaUSA
  2. 2.Department of Laboratory ImmunoregulationNational Institute of Allergy and Infectious DiseasesBethesdaUSA

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