Advertisement

The Epidemiology of Obesity

  • Kervin Arroyo
  • Daniel M. Herron
Chapter

Abstract

Obesity is a major global health problem. Because the causes of obesity are multifactorial and poorly understood, predicting future trends in obesity presents a substantial challenge. The simplest and least expensive intervention is lifestyle modification, including more exercise and a less sedentary lifestyle. However, once severe obesity is present, dietary and behavioral approaches are minimally effective in producing clinically significant and sustained weight loss. While bariatric surgery has been shown to be effective in treating class III obesity on a long-term basis, logistics, cost, and fear of complications prevent its use on a population-wide basis. Only through better understanding of the underlying physiologic causes will an enduring solution be found.

Keywords

Body Mass Index Obesity Rate Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey Congestive Heart Disease Body Mass Index Cutoff Point 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    World Health Organization website. http://apps.who.int/bmi/index.jsp. Accessed 28 Nov 2012.
  2. 2.
    Krassas GE, Tzotzas T. Do obese children become obese adults: childhood predictors of adult disease. Pediatr Endocrinol Rev. 2004;3:455–9.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Serdula MK, Ivery D, Coates RJ, Freedman DS, Williamson DF, Byers T. Do obese children become obese adults? A review of the literature. Prev Med. 1993;22(2):167–77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Wang Y, Beydoun MA, Liang L, Caballero B, Kumanyika SK. Will all Americans become overweight or obese? Estimating the progression and cost of the US obesity epidemic. Obesity. 2008;6(10):2323–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    World Health Organization Consultation of Obesity. Obesity: preventing and managing the global epidemic. World Health Organ Tech Rep Ser. 2000;894:256.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Metropolitan Life Insurance Company. New weight standards for men and women. Stat Bull Metrop Insur Co. 1959;40:1.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    World Health Organization Expert Committee. Physical status: the use and interpretation of anthropometry. World Health Organ Tech Rep Ser. 1995; 854:1–452.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Baumgartner RN, Heymsfield SB, Roche AF. Human body composition and the epidemiology of chronic disease. Obes Res. 1995;3(1):73–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    World Health Organization Consultation of Obesity. Obesity: preventing and managing the global epidemic. http://www.who.int/nutrition/publications/obesity/WHO_TRS_894/en/. Accessed 28 Nov 2012.
  10. 10.
    Pouliot MC, Després JP, Lemieux S, et al. Waist circumference and abdominal sagittal diameter: best simple anthropometric indexes of abdominal visceral adipose tissue accumulation and related cardiovascular risk in men and women. Am J Cardiol. 1994;73(7):460–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lean ME, Han TS, Morrison CE. Waist circumference as a measure for indicating need for weight ­management. BMJ. 1995;311(6998):158–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lemieux S, Lemieux S, Prud’homme D, Tremblay A, Bouchard C, Després JP. Anthropometric correlates to changes in visceral adipose tissue. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1996;20:618–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Després JP, Lemieux I, Prud’homme D. Treatment of obesity: need to focus on high risk abdominally obese patients. BMJ. 2001;322(7288):716–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lafortuna CL, Agosti F, Proietti M, Adorni F, Sartorio A. The combined effect of adiposity, fat distribution and age on cardiovascular risk factors and motor disability in a cohort of obese women (aged 18–83). J Endocrinol Invest. 2006;29(10):905–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Peiris AN, Sothmann MS, Hoffmann RG, et al. Adiposity, fat distribution, and cardiovascular risk. Ann Intern Med. 1989;1(110):867–72.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. About the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nhanes/about_nhanes.htm. Accessed Feb 2010.
  17. 17.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. About the BRFSS. http://www.cdc.gov/BRFSS/about.htm. Accessed Feb 2010.
  18. 18.
    National Institute of Heath. Overweight and obesity statistics. http://win.niddk.nih.gov/publications/PDFs/stat904z.pdf. Accessed 28 Nov 2012.
  19. 19.
    Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Ogden CL, Johnson CL. Prevalence and trends in obesity among US adults 1999–2000. JAMA. 2002;288:1723–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Growth charts. http://www.cdc.gov/GrowthCharts. Accessed 3 Feb 2010.
  21. 21.
    World Health Organization. Physical status: the use and interpretation of anthropometry. Report of the WHO Expert Committee. WHO Technical Report Series 854. Geneva: WHO; 1995.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Laitinen J, Näyhä S, Kujala V. Body mass index and weight change from adolescence into adulthood, waist-to-hip ratio and perceived work ability among young adults. Int J Obes. 2005;29(6):697–702.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Curtin LR, Lamb MM, Flegal KM. Prevalence of high body mass index in US ­children and adolescents, 2007–2008. JAMA. 2010; 303(3):242–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Curtin LR, McDowell MA, Tabak CJ, Flegal KM. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States, 1999–2004. JAMA. 2006;295(13):1549–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/data/trends.html. Accessed Feb 2010.
  26. 26.
    Gordon-Larsen P, The NS, Adair LS. Longitudinal trends in obesity in the United States from adolescence to the third decade of life. Obesity. 2009;18(9): 1801–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ogden CL, Yanovski SZ, Carroll MD, Flegal KM. The epidemiology of obesity. Gastroenterology. 2007; 132(6):2087–102.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Carrasquillo JM. Prevalence of excess body weight and obesity in children and adolescents. ENHIS Fact Sheet 2.3, December 2009. http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0005/96980/2.3.-­Prevalence-of-overweight-and-obesity-EDITED_­layouted_V3.pdf. Accessed 20 Dec 2012.
  29. 29.
    World Health Organization Europe. The challenges of obesity in the WHO European region and strategies for response. Health Aff. 2006;28:822–31.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Zaninotto P, Head J, Stamatakis E, Wardle H, Mindell J. Trends in obesity among adults in England from 1993 to 2004 by age and social class and projections of prevalence to 2012. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2009;63(2):140–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kelly T, Yang W, Chen CS, Reynolds K, He J. Global burden of obesity in 2005 and projections to 2030. Int J Obes (Lond). 2008;32(9):1431–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    World Health Organization. Global database on body mass index. http://apps.who.int/bmi/index.jsp?introPage=intro.html. Accessed 20 Dec 2012.
  33. 33.
    Haslam DW, James WP. Obesity. Lancet. 2005; 366 (9492):1197–209.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Alberti KG, Zimmet P, Shaw J. The metabolic syndrome–a new worldwide definition. Lancet. 2005; 366:1059.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Grundy SM, Cleeman JI, Daniels SR, et al. Diagnosis and management of the metabolic syndrome: an American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Scientific Statement. Circulation. 2005;112:2735.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Colditz GA, Willett WC, Rotnitzky A, Manson JE. Weight gain as a risk factor for clinical diabetes ­mellitus in women. Ann Intern Med. 1995;122(7):481–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Bibbins-Domingo K, Coxson P, Pletcher MJ, Lightwood J, Goldman L. Adolescent overweight and future adult coronary heart disease. N Engl J Med. 2007;357:2371–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Baker JL, Olsen LW, Sørensen TI. Childhood body-mass index and the risk of coronary heart disease in adulthood. N Engl J Med. 2007;357(23):2329–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Brown CD, Higgins M, Donato KA, et al. Body mass index and the prevalence of hypertension and dyslipidemia. Obes Res. 2000;8(9):605–19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Mokdad AH, Marks JS, Stroup DF, Gerberding JL. Actual causes of death in the United States, 2000. JAMA. 2004;291(10):1238–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Hennekens CH, Willett WC. Body weight and longevity. A reassessment. JAMA. 1987;257(3):353–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Whitlock G, Lewington S, Sherliker P, Clarke R, Emberson J, Halsey J, Qizilbash N, Collins R, Peto R. Prospective studies collaboration, body-mass index and cause-specific mortality in 900000 adults: collaborative analyses of 57 prospective studies. Lancet. 2009;373(9669):1083–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Cornoni-Huntley JC, Harris TB, Everett DF, et al. An overview of body weight of older persons, including the impact on mortality. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey I—Epidemiologic Follow-up Study. J Clin Epidemiol. 1991;44(8):743–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Stevens J, Cai J, Pamuk ER, Williamson DF, Thun MJ, Wood JL. The effect of age on the association between body-mass index and mortality. N Engl J Med. 1998;338:1–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Finkelstein EA, Fiebelkorn IC, Wang G. National medical spending attributable to overweight and obesity: how much, and who’s paying? Health Aff. 2003;22(3):219–26.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Colditz GA. Economic costs of obesity and inactivity. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1999;31(11 Suppl):S663–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Pearson WS, Bhat-Schelbert K, Ford ES, Mokdad AH. The impact of obesity on time spent with the provider and number of medications managed during office-based physician visits using a cross-sectional, national health survey. BMC Public Health. 2010;9:436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Childress M. Future obesity and smoking rates. Policy Notes. 2006;20. http://www.e-archives.ky.gov/pubs/LPRC/pn0020_obesity_smoking.pdf. Accessed 28 Nov 2012.
  49. 49.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Can lifestyle modifications using therapeutic lifestyle changes (TLC) reduce weight and the risk for chronic disease? http://www.cdc.gov/nutrition/downloads/R2P_life_change.pdf. Accessed 28 Nov 2012.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.General and Advanced Laparoscopic SurgeryHospital Menonita AibonitoCoamoUSA
  2. 2.Section of Laparoscopic and Bariatric Surgery, Division of Metabolic, Endocrine and Minimally Invasive Surgery, Department of SurgeryMount Sinai School of MedicineNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations