Advertisement

Hematopoietic Tumors of the Thyroid

  • Lawrence Tsao
  • Eric Hsi
Chapter
Part of the Molecular Pathology Library book series (MPLB, volume 3)

Abstract

Primary lymphoma of the thyroid gland is a relatively uncommon disease. The term “primary thyroid lymphoma” (PTL) is a nonspecific, broad term referring to any lymphoma restricted to the thyroid gland. Further classification of PTL is clinically necessary and should be based on histologic, phenotypic, and molecular features using the current World Health Organization (WHO) classification system. Both Hodgkin and many types of non-Hodgkin lymphomas can occur as a PTL. However, the most common types of PTL are extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphomas) and diffuse large B-cell lymphomas, NOS (DLBCL).

Keywords

Follicular Lymphoma Malt Lymphoma Burkitt Lymphoma Hashimoto Thyroiditis Gastric Malt Lymphoma 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Freeman C, Berg JW, Cutler SJ. Occurrence and prognosis of extranodal lymphomas. Cancer. 1972;29:252–260.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Staunton MD, Greening WP. Clinical diagnosis of thyroid cancer. Br Med J. 1973;4:532–535.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Aozasa K, Tsujimoto M, Sakurai M, et al. Non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas in Osaka, Japan. Eur J Cancer Clin Oncol. 1985;21:487–492.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Derringer GA, Thompson LD, Frommelt RA, Bijwaard KE, Heffess CS, Abbondanzo SL. Malignant lymphoma of the thyroid gland: a clinicopathologic study of 108 cases. Am J Surg Pathol. 2000;24:623–639.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Thieblemont C, Mayer A, Dumontet C, et al. Primary thyroid lymphoma is a heterogeneous disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002;87:105–111.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Skacel M, Ross CW, Hsi ED. A reassessment of primary thyroid lymphoma: high-grade MALT-type lymphoma as a distinct subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Histopathology. 2000;37:10–18.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Belal AA, Allam A, Kandil A, et al. Primary thyroid lymphoma: a retrospective analysis of prognostic factors and treatment outcome for localized intermediate and high grade lymphoma. Am J Clin Oncol. 2001;24:299–305.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    DiBiase SJ, Grigsby PW, Guo C, Lin HS, Wasserman TH. Outcome analysis for stage IE and IIE thyroid lymphoma. Am J Clin Oncol. 2004;27:178–184.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ha CS, Shadle KM, Medeiros LJ, et al. Localized non-Hodgkin lymphoma involving the thyroid gland. Cancer. 2001;91:629–635.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Niitsu N, Okamoto M, Nakamura N, Nakamine H, Bessho M, Hirano M. Clinicopathologic correlations of stage IE/IIE primary thyroid diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Ann Oncol. 2007;18:1203–1208.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wang SA, Rahemtullah A, Faquin WC, Roepke J, Harris NL, Hasserjian RP. Hodgkin’s lymphoma of the thyroid: a clinicopathologic study of five cases and review of the literature. Mod Pathol. 2005;18:1577–1584.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Rawal A, Finn WG, Schnitzer B, Valdez R. Site-specific morphologic differences in extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphomas. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2007;131:1673–1678.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Remstein ED, Dogan A, Einerson RR, et al. The incidence and anatomic site specificity of chromosomal translocations in primary extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma) in North America. Am J Surg Pathol. 2006;30:1546–1553.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Joao C, Farinha P, da Silva MG, Martins C, Crespo M, Cabecadas J. Cytogenetic abnormalities in MALT lymphomas and their precursor lesions from different organs. A fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) study. Histopathology. 2007;50:217–224.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Moshynska OV, Saxena A. Clonal relationship between Hashimoto thyroiditis and thyroid lymphoma. J Clin Pathol. 2008;61:438–444.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Saxena A, Alport EC, Moshynska O, Kanthan R, Boctor MA. Clonal B cell populations in a minority of patients with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. J Clin Pathol. 2004;57:1258–1263.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Dong L, Masaki Y, Takegami T, et al. Clonality analysis of lymphoproliferative disorders in patients with Sjogren’s syndrome. Clin Exp Immunol. 2007;150:279–284.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Takakuwa T, Nomura S, Matsuzuka F, Inoue H, Aozasa K. Expression of interleukin-7 and its receptor in thyroid lymphoma. Lab Invest. 2000;80:1483–1490.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ohshima K, Suefuji H, Karube K, et al. Expression of chemokine receptor CXCR3 and its ligand, mig, in gastric and thyroid marginal zone lymphomas. Possible migration and autocrine mechanism. Leuk Lymphoma. 2003;44:329–336.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sugawara M, Matsuzuka F, Fukata S, Kuma K, Moatamed F, Haugen BR. Excessive survivin expression in thyroid lymphomas. Hum Pathol. 2002;33:524–527.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Nakatsuka S, Takakuwa T, Tomita Y, Miwa H, Matsuzuka F, Aozasa K. Role of hypermethylation of DAP-kinase CpG island in the development of thyroid lymphoma. Lab Invest. 2000;80:1651–1655.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Takakuwa T, Dong Z, Takayama H, Matsuzuka F, Nagata S, Aozasa K. Frequent mutations of Fas gene in thyroid lymphoma. Cancer Res. 2001;61:1382–1385.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Takakuwa T, Hongyo T, Syaifudin M, et al. Microsatellite instability and k-ras, p53 mutations in thyroid lymphoma. Jpn J Cancer Res. 2000;91:280–286.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ito Y, Yoshida H, Matsuzuka F, et al. Jun activation domain-binding protein 1 expression in malignant lymphoma of the thyroid: its linkage to degree of malignancy and p27 expression. Anticancer Res. 2003;23:4121–4125.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ito Y, Yoshida H, Matsuzuka F, et al. Expression of the components of the Cip/Kip family in malignant lymphoma of the thyroid. Pathobiology. 2004;71:164–170.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ito Y, Yoshida H, Matsuzuka F, et al. Cdc25A and cdc25B expression in malignant lymphoma of the thyroid: correlation with histological subtypes and cell proliferation. Int J Mol Med. 2004;13:431–435.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ito Y, Yoshida H, Matsuzuka F, et al. Cdc2 expression in primary thyroid lymphoma: its relationship with biological aggressiveness and G2 cyclins. Pathol Res Pract. 2003;199:533–538.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Wotherspoon AC, Doglioni C, Diss TC, et al. Regression of primary low-grade B-cell gastric lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type after eradication of Helicobacter pylori. Lancet. 1993;342:575–577.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hussell T, Isaacson PG, Crabtree JE, Spencer J. The response of cells from low-grade B-cell gastric lymphomas of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue to Helicobacter pylori. Lancet. 1993;342:571–574.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Parsonnet J, Hansen S, Rodriguez L, et al. Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric lymphoma. N Engl J Med. 1994;330:1267–1271.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Wotherspoon AC, Ortiz-Hidalgo C, Falzon MR, Isaacson PG. Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis and primary B-cell gastric lymphoma. Lancet. 1991;338:1175–1176.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ruland J, Duncan GS, Wakeham A, Mak TW. Differential requirement for Malt1 in T and B cell antigen receptor signaling. Immunity. 2003;19:749–758.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Ruland J, Duncan GS, Elia A, et al. Bcl10 is a positive regulator of antigen receptor-induced activation of NF-kappaB and neural tube closure. Cell. 2001;104:33–42.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Ruefli-Brasse AA, French DM, Dixit VM. Regulation of NF-kappaB-dependent lymphocyte activation and development by paracaspase. Science. 2003;302:1581–1584.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Xue L, Morris SW, Orihuela C, et al. Defective development and function of Bcl10-deficient follicular, marginal zone and B1 B cells. Nat Immunol. 2003;4:857–865.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Gaide O, Favier B, Legler DF, et al. CARMA1 is a critical lipid raft-associated regulator of TCR-induced NF-kappa B activation. Nat Immunol. 2002;3:836–843.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Streubel B, Vinatzer U, Lamprecht A, Raderer M, Chott A. T(3;14)(p14.1;q32) involving IGH and FOXP1 is a novel recurrent chromosomal aberration in MALT lymphoma. Leukemia. 2005;19:652–658.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Holm LE, Blomgren H, Lowhagen T. Cancer risks in patients with chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis. N Engl J Med. 1985;312:601–604.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Sato Y, Nakamura N, Nakamura S, et al. Deviated VH4 immunoglobulin gene usage is found among thyroid mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas, similar to the usage at other sites, but is not found in thyroid diffuse large B-cell lymphomas. Mod Pathol. 2006;19:1578–1584.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Ito Y, Yoshida H, Matsuzuka F, et al. Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) expression is associated with cell proliferative activity and cdc2 expression in malignant lymphoma of the thyroid. Anticancer Res. 2004;24:259–263.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Morgner A, Lehn N, Andersen LP, et al. Helicobacter heilmannii-associated primary gastric low-grade MALT lymphoma: complete remission after curing the infection. Gastroenterology. 2000;118:821–828.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Lecuit M, Abachin E, Martin A, et al. Immunoproliferative small intestinal disease associated with Campylobacter jejuni. N Engl J Med. 2004;350:239–248.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Garbe C, Stein H, Dienemann D, Orfanos CE. Borrelia burgdorferi-associated cutaneous B cell lymphoma: clinical and immunohistologic characterization of four cases. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1991;24:584–590.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Cerroni L, Zochling N, Putz B, Kerl H. Infection by Borrelia burgdorferi and cutaneous B-cell lymphoma. J Cutan Pathol. 1997;24:457–461.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Kutting B, Bonsmann G, Metze D, Luger TA, Cerroni L. Borrelia burgdorferi-associated primary cutaneous B cell lymphoma: complete clearing of skin lesions after antibiotic pulse therapy or intralesional injection of interferon alfa-2a. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1997;36:311–314.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Ferreri AJ, Ponzoni M, Guidoboni M, et al. Regression of ocular adnexal lymphoma after Chlamydia psittaci-eradicating antibiotic therapy. J Clin Oncol. 2005;23:5067–5073.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Ferreri AJ, Guidoboni M, Ponzoni M, et al. Evidence for an association between Chlamydia psittaci and ocular adnexal lymphomas. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2004;96:586–594.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Rosado MF, Byrne GE Jr, Ding F, et al. Ocular adnexal lymphoma: a clinicopathologic study of a large cohort of patients with no evidence for an association with Chlamydia psittaci. Blood. 2006;107:467–472.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Vargas RL, Fallone E, Felgar RE, et al. Is there an association between ocular adnexal lymphoma and infection with Chlamydia psittaci? The University of Rochester experience. Leuk Res. 2006;30:547–551.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Streubel B, Simonitsch-Klupp I, Mullauer L, et al. Variable frequencies of MALT lymphoma-associated genetic aberrations in MALT lymphomas of different sites. Leukemia. 2004;18:1722–1726.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Streubel B, Lamprecht A, Dierlamm J, et al. T(14;18)(q32;q21) involving IGH and MALT1 is a frequent chromosomal aberration in MALT lymphoma. Blood. 2003;101:2335–2339.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lawrence Tsao
    • 1
  • Eric Hsi
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine InstituteCleveland ClinicClevelandUSA
  2. 2.Department of Clinical PathologyCleveland ClinicClevelandUSA

Personalised recommendations