Urgent Workup for Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding

  • Loretta Erhunmwunsee
  • Sandhya A. Lagoo-Deenadayalan


Each year hundreds of thousands of patients suffer from acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) [1], which by definition arises from a site proximal to the ligament of Treitz. Etiological factors include peptic ulcer disease, gastritis, gastroesophageal varices, and Mallory–Weiss tears. Less common causes are marginal ulcers, esophagitis, gastric cancer, aorto-enteric fistulas, hemobilia, AV malformations (Fig. 1), and Dieulafoy lesions [2,3]. Peptic ulcer disease, including gastric/duodenal ulcers (Fig. 2) and erosive esophagitis/gastritis (Fig. 3), is the source of bleed 50–75% of the time [1,2,4,5]. The incidence of esophageal varices is 10–30%, Mallory–Weiss tears 4–13%, AVMs 2–4%, malignancies 1–5%, and Dieulafoy lesions 1–2% [5].


Peptic Ulcer Disease Esophageal Varix Variceal Bleed Gastric Antral Vascular Ectasia Gastroesophageal Varix 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Loretta Erhunmwunsee
    • 1
  • Sandhya A. Lagoo-Deenadayalan
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of SurgeryDuke University Medical CenterDurhamUSA

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