Optimizing Immunosuppression

  • Alexander C. Wiseman
  • James E. Cooper


While short-term outcomes in kidney transplantation have improved significantly over the last decades, questions remain regarding long-term improvements in graft survival. Whereas long-term graft survival was reported to improve significantly from the mid-1980s to the mid-1990s, a more recent analysis has shown an equivalent relative risk of graft failure for those transplanted in 1995 through 2000 despite a reduction in acute rejection rates of nearly 50% during that time. Thus, attention has shifted to medication regimens that not only prevent early acute rejection but also take into consideration drug side-effect profiles, ease of use, and effect on long-term graft function.


Acute Rejection Graft Survival Acute Rejection Episode Chronic Allograft Nephropathy Steroid Withdrawal 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The authors wish to thank the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients for supplying data used to generate Fig. 10.1 within this chapter. The data and analyses reported in the 2007 Annual Report of the US Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network and the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients have been supplied by UNOS and Arbor Research under contract with HHS. The authors alone are responsible for reporting and interpreting these data.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag US 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Kidney and Pancreas Transplant Program, Department of NephrologyUniversity of ColoradoAuroraUSA
  2. 2.Department of NephrologyUniversity of ColoradoAuroraUSA

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