Flow-Dependent Noncontrast MR Angiography

  • Mitsue Miyazaki
  • Satoshi Sugiura
  • Yoshimori Kassai
  • Hitoshi Kanazawa
  • Robert Edelman
  • Ioannis Koktzoglou


Noncontrast MR angiography (NC-MRA) techniques such as time-of-flight (TOF) and phase contrast (PC) have been available since the early days of MRI development. However, long scan times and various artifacts have limited their use in the clinical setting over contrast-enhanced (CE) MRA techniques, introduced first around the mid-1990s. At the present time, three-dimensional (3D) TOF remains the main technique for intracranial MRA, while PC has been used as an angiogram technique as well as flow functional technique in various regions of the body. In other regions of the body like the chest, abdomen, and peripheral regions, CE MRA became the main MR technique in those areas. Rapid development of CE MRA was facilitated by various developments in system hardware, parallel imaging, sequence improvements, and the introduction of time-resolved MRA. Since the recent FDA black-box warning associated with the use of gadolinium-base contrast agent in 2007 and the risk of developing nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF), there is renewed interest in NC-MRA as an alternative to CE MRA.


Superior Vena Cava Arterial Spin Label Magnetization Transfer Bright Blood bSSFP Imaging 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mitsue Miyazaki
    • 1
  • Satoshi Sugiura
    • 2
  • Yoshimori Kassai
    • 2
  • Hitoshi Kanazawa
    • 2
  • Robert Edelman
    • 3
  • Ioannis Koktzoglou
    • 3
  1. 1.MRI DepartmentToshiba Medical Research InstituteVernon HillsUSA
  2. 2.MRI Systems Development DepartmentToshiba Medical Systems CorporationOtawaraJapan
  3. 3.Northshore University Health SystemEvanstonUSA

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