CE-MRA in the Age of Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis
The purpose of this chapter is to review the current knowledge concerning nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) and discuss its implications for contrast-enhanced MR angiography (MRA). NSF is a rare but serious systemic fibrosing condition occurring in patients with profound renal impairment. An increasing body of literature has implicated gadolinium (Gd)-based MR contrast agents (GBCAs) as the causative factor in the development of NSF. We discuss the clinical aspects of the disease, review the literature supporting an etiologic role of GBCAs, discuss risk factors for the disease, and cover current recommendations and prevention strategies with particular emphasis on MRA applications.
KeywordsAcute Renal Failure Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis Gadopentetate Dimeglumine Gadobenate Dimeglumine Severe Renal Dysfunction
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