Time-of-Flight Angiography



Time-of-flight (TOF) angiography is a widely used means of producing angiographic images without the need for the injection of contrast agent. In this chapter, we discuss the MR imaging (MRI) physics which governs the creation of TOF angiograms. We also describe the MRI pulse sequence used for TOF imaging, sources of artifact, and compensatory mechanisms to reduce the deleterious effect of these artifacts.


Magnetization Transfer Maximum Intensity Projection Image Slice Selection Flow Compensation Readout Gradient 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of RadiologyUtah Center for Advanced Imaging ResearchSalt Lake CityUSA

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