Extrasolar Planetary Systems

  • M. Vázquez
  • E. Pallé
  • P. Montañés Rodríguez
Chapter
Part of the Astronomy and Astrophysics Library book series (AAL)

Abstract

The stability of a planet depends not only on its physical properties or distance to the star, but also on the configuration of the planetary system where it was born. A unique process, gravitational collapse of a molecular cloud, can give rise to different planetary systems. The detailed configuration of this cloud, such as its mass, rotation and metallicity, will give the genetic print of the newborn system, conditioning the destiny of the different planets. Following this biological approach, the gravitational interactions between the different components during the first phase of the evolution of the system will let only the fittest, the stablest, to survive.

Keywords

Vortex Methane Migration Dioxide Dust 

References

  1. Adams, F.C., Hollenbach, D., Laughlin, G., Gorti, U.: Photoevaporation of circumstellar disks due to external far-ultraviolet radiation in stellar aggregates. Astrophys. J. 611, 360–379 (2004)ADSGoogle Scholar
  2. Adams, F.C., Laughlin, G., Bloch, A.M.: Turbulence in extrasolar planetary systems implies that mean motion resonances are rare. Astrophys. J. 683, 1117–1128 (2008)ADSGoogle Scholar
  3. Aiton, E.J.: The vortex theory of planetary motions. Mac Donald, London (1972)MATHGoogle Scholar
  4. Alibert, Y., Baraffe, I., Benz, W., Chabrier, G., Mordasini, C., Lovis, C., Mayor, M., Pepe, F., Bouchy, F., Queloz, D., Udry, S.: Formation and structure of the three Neptune-mass planets system around HD 69830. Astron. Astrophys. 455, L25–L28 (2006)ADSGoogle Scholar
  5. Armitage, P.: Planetary formation and migration. Scholarpedia 3, 4479 (2008)Google Scholar
  6. Aumann, H.H., Beichman, C.A., Gillett, F.C., de Jong, T., Houck, J.R., Low, F.J., Neugebauer, G., Walker, R.G., Wesselius, P.R.: Discovery of a shell around Alpha Lyrae. Astrophys. J. 278, L23–L27 (1984)ADSGoogle Scholar
  7. Barnes, R., Greenberg, R.: Stability limits in extrasolar planetary systems. Astrophys. J. 647, L163–L166 (2006)ADSGoogle Scholar
  8. Barnes, R., Quinn, T.: The (in)stability of planetary systems. Astrophys. J. 611, 494–516 (2004)ADSGoogle Scholar
  9. Barnes, R., Raymond, S.N.: Predicting planets in known extrasolar planetary systems I. Test particle simulation, Astrophys. J. 617, 569–574 (2004)ADSGoogle Scholar
  10. Barnes, R., Jackson, B., Raymond, S.N., West, A.A., Greenberg, R.: The HD 40307 planetary system: Super-Earths or mini-Neptunes? Astrophys. J. 695, 1006–1011 (2009)ADSGoogle Scholar
  11. Bean, J.L., McArthur, B.E., Benedict, G.F., Armstrong, A.: Detection of a third planet in the HD 74156 system using the Hobby-Eberly telescope. Astrophys. J. 672, 1202–1208 (2008)ADSGoogle Scholar
  12. Beichman, C.A., Bryden, G., Gautier, T.N., Stapelfeldt, K.R., Werner, M.W., Misselt, K., Rieke, G., Stansberry, J., Trilling, D.: An excess due to small grains around the nearby K0 V star HD 69830: Asteroid or cometary debris? Astrophys. J. 626, 1061–1069 (2005)ADSGoogle Scholar
  13. Bertout, C.: T Tauri stars – Wild as dust. Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 27, 351–395 (1989)ADSGoogle Scholar
  14. Beust, H., Bonfils, X., Delfosse, X., Udry, S.: Dynamical evolution of the Gliese 581 planetary system. Astron. Astrophys. 479, 277–282 (2008)ADSGoogle Scholar
  15. Boss, A.P.: Giant planet formation by gravitational instability. Science 276, 1836–1839 (1997)ADSGoogle Scholar
  16. Boss, A.P.: The origin of protoplanetary disks. In: Woodward, C.E., Shull, J.M., Thronson, H.A., Jr. (eds.) Origins, Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, vol. 148, pp. 314–326 (1998)Google Scholar
  17. Boss, A.P.: Collapse and fragmentation of molecular cloud cores. VII. Magnetic fields and multiple protostar formation. Astrophys. J. 568, 743–753 (2002)Google Scholar
  18. Boss, A.P.: Rapid formation of outer giant planets by disk instability. Astrophys. J. 599, 577–581 (2003)ADSGoogle Scholar
  19. Boss, A.P.: Rapid formation of super-Earths around M dwarf stars. Astrophys. J. 644, L79–L82 (2006)ADSGoogle Scholar
  20. Boss, A.P.: Testing disk instability models for giant planet formation. Astrophys. J. 661, L73–L76 (2007)ADSGoogle Scholar
  21. Brahic, A.: Theories of the origin of the solar system – Some historical remarks. In: Brahic, A. (ed.) Formation of Planetary Systems, Toulouse, Cepadues-Editions, p. 15, 17–58 (1982)Google Scholar
  22. Brush, S.: Meteorites and the origin of the solar system. Geol. Soc. Lond. Spec. Publ. 256, 417–441 (2006)Google Scholar
  23. Brush, S.G.: A history of modern planetary physics: Nebulous Earth. Cambridge University Press, London (1996); reprinted 2009Google Scholar
  24. Bryden, G., Beichman, C.A., Trilling, D.E., Rieke, G.H., Holmes, E.K., Lawler, S.M., Stapelfeldt, K.R., Werner, M.W., Gautier, T.N., Blaylock, M., Gordon, K.D., Stansberry, J.A., Su, K.Y.L.: Frequency of debris disks around solar-type stars: First results from a Spitzer MIPS survey. Astrophys. J. 636, 1098–1113 (2006)ADSGoogle Scholar
  25. Burns, J.A.: The evolution of satellite orbits. In: Burns, J.A., Matthews, M.S. (eds.) Satellites, pp. 117–158. University of Arizona Press, AZ (1986)Google Scholar
  26. Butler, R.P., Marcy, G.W., Fischer, D.A., Brown, T.M., Contos, A.R., Korzennik, S.G., Nisenson, P., Noyes, R.W.: Evidence for multiple companions to υ Andromedae. Astrophys. J. 526, 916–927 (1999)ADSGoogle Scholar
  27. Caballero, J.A.: Stars and brown dwarfs in the σ Orionis cluster: The Mayrit catalogue. Astron. Astrophys. 478, 667–674 (2008)ADSGoogle Scholar
  28. Cameron, A.G.W.: The early evolution of the solar system. In: Hemenway, C.L., Millman, P.M., Cook, A.F. (eds.) IAU Colloq. 13: Evolutionary and physical properties of Meteoroids, pp. 347–354 (1973)Google Scholar
  29. Celletti, A., Perozzi, E.: Celestial mechanics: The Waltz of the planets. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)Google Scholar
  30. Chambers, J.E.: Terrestrial planet formation. In: Holt, S.S., Deming, D. (eds.) The search for other worlds, American Institute of Physics Conference Series, vol. 713, pp. 203–212 (2004)Google Scholar
  31. Chambers, J.E.: Planetary migration: What does it mean for planet formation? Ann. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 37, 321–344 (2009)ADSGoogle Scholar
  32. Correia, A.C.M., Laskar, J.: Mercury’s capture into the 3/2 spin-orbit resonance as a result of its chaotic dynamics. Nature 429, 848–850 (2004)ADSGoogle Scholar
  33. Crida, A.: Minimum mass solar nebulae and planetary migration. Astrophys. J. 698, 606–614 (2009)ADSGoogle Scholar
  34. Cumming, A., Butler, R.P., Marcy, G.W., Vogt, S.S., Wright, J.T., Fischer, D.A.: The Keck planet search: Detectability and the minimum mass and orbital period distribution of extrasolar planets. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 120, 531–554 (2008)ADSGoogle Scholar
  35. de Val-Borro, M., Edgar, R.G., Artymowicz, P., Ciecielag, P., Cresswell, P., D’Angelo, G., Delgado-Donate, E.J., Dirksen, G., Fromang, S., Gawryszczak, A., Klahr, H., Kley, W., Lyra, W., Masset, F., Mellema, G., Nelson, R.P., Paardekooper, S.J., Peplinski, A., Pierens, A., Plewa, T., Rice, K., Schäfer, C., Speith, R.: A comparative study of disc-planet interaction. Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 370, 529–558 (2006)ADSGoogle Scholar
  36. Diacu, F., Holmes, P.: Celestial encounters. The origins of chaos and stability. Princeton University Press, NJ(1996)MATHGoogle Scholar
  37. Eggenberger, A., Udry, S., Mayor, M.: Statistical properties of exoplanets. III. Planet properties and stellar multiplicity. Astron. Astrophys. 417, 353–360 (2004)Google Scholar
  38. Fischer, D.A., Marcy, G.W., Butler, R.P., Vogt, S.S., Laughlin, G., Henry, G.W., Abouav, D., Peek, K.M.G., Wright, J.T., Johnson, J.A., McCarthy, C., Isaacson, H.: Five planets orbiting 55 Cancri. Astrophys. J. 675, 790–801 (2008)ADSGoogle Scholar
  39. Fixler, J.B., Foster, G.T., Mc Guirk, J.M., Kasevich, M.A.: Atom interferometer measurement of the newtonian constant of gravity. Science 315, 74–77 (2007)ADSGoogle Scholar
  40. Fogg, M.J., Nelson, R.P.: On the formation of terrestrial planets in hot-Jupiter systems. Astron. Astrophys. 461, 1195–1208 (2007)ADSGoogle Scholar
  41. Ford, E.B., Lystad, V., Rasio, F.A.: Planet-planet scattering in the upsilon Andromedae system. Nature 434, 873–876 (2005)ADSGoogle Scholar
  42. Ford, E.B., Rasio, F.A.: Origins of eccentric extrasolar planets: Testing the planet-planet scattering model. Astrophys. J. 686, 621–636 (2008)ADSGoogle Scholar
  43. Forrest, W.J., Sargent, B., Furlan, E., D’Alessio, P., Calvet, N., Hartmann, L., Uchida, K.I., Green, J.D., Watson, D.M., Chen, C.H., Kemper, F., Keller, L.D., Sloan, G.C., Herter, T.L., Brandl, B.R., Houck, J.R., Barry, D.J., Hall, P., Morris, P.W., Najita, J., Myers, P.C.: Mid-infrared spectroscopy of disks around classical T Tauri stars. Astrophys. J. Suppl. 154, 443–447 (2004)ADSGoogle Scholar
  44. Freistetter, F., Krivov, A.V., Löhne, T.: Planets of β Pictoris revisited. Astron. Astrophys. 466, 389–393 (2007)ADSGoogle Scholar
  45. Gladman, B.: Dynamics of systems of two close planets. Icarus 106, 247–263 (1993)ADSGoogle Scholar
  46. Goldreich, P., Tremaine, S.: Disk-satellite interactions. Astrophys. J. 241, 425–441 (1980)MathSciNetADSGoogle Scholar
  47. Goldreich, P., Ward, W.R.: The formation of planetesimals. Astrophys. J. 183, 1051–1062 (1973)ADSGoogle Scholar
  48. Golimowski, D.A., Ardila, D.R., Krist, J.E., Clampin, M., Ford, H.C., Illingworth, G.D., Bartko, F., Benítez, N., Blakeslee, J.P., Bouwens, R.J., Bradley, L.D., Broadhurst, T.J., Brown, R.A., Burrows, C.J., Cheng, E.S., Cross, N.J.G., Demarco, R., Feldman, P.D., Franx, M., Goto, T., Gronwall, C., Hartig, G.F., Holden, B.P., Homeier, N.L., Infante, L., Jee, M.J., Kimble, R.A., Lesser, M.P., Martel, A.R., Mei, S., Menanteau, F., Meurer, G.R., Miley, G.K., Motta, V., Postman, M., Rosati, P., Sirianni, M., Sparks, W.B., Tran, H.D., Tsvetanov, Z.I., White, R.L., Zheng, W., Zirm, A.W.: Hubble space telescope ACS multiband coronagraphic imaging of the debris disk around β Pictoris. Astron. J. 131, 3109–3130 (2006)ADSGoogle Scholar
  49. Gomes, R., Levison, H.F., Tsiganis, K., Morbidelli, A.: Origin of the cataclysmic late heavy bombardment period of the terrestrial planets. Nature 435, 466–469 (2005)ADSGoogle Scholar
  50. Gónzalez Martínez-Pais, J.I.: Introducción a la Mecánica Celeste (formulación newtoniana. Servicio de Publicaciones, Universidad de La Laguna (2003)Google Scholar
  51. Greaves, J.S., Wyatt, M.C., Holland, W.S., Dent, W.R.F.: The debris disc around τ Ceti: A massive analogue to the Kuiper Belt. Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 351, L54–L58 (2004)ADSGoogle Scholar
  52. Greaves, J.S., Fischer, D.A., Wyatt, M.C., Beichman, C.A., Bryden, G.: Predicting the frequencies of diverse exo-planetary systems. Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 378, L1–L5 (2007)ADSGoogle Scholar
  53. Hayashi, C.: Stellar evolution in early phases of gravitational contraction. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 13, 450–452 (1961)ADSGoogle Scholar
  54. Hillenbrand, L.A., Carpenter, J.M., Kim, J.S., Meyer, M.R., Backman, D.E., Moro-Martín, A., Hollenbach, D.J., Hines, D.C., Pascucci, I., Bouwman, J.: The complete census of 70 μm-bright debris disks within “the formation and evolution of planetary systems” Spitzer legacy survey of sun-like stars. Astrophys. J. 677, 630–656 (2008)ADSGoogle Scholar
  55. Holman, M.J., Wiegert, P.A.: Long-term stability of planets in binary systems. Astron. J. 117, 621–628 (1999)ADSGoogle Scholar
  56. Ida, S., Lin, D.N.C.: Toward a deterministic model of planetary formation. I. A desert in the mass and semimajor axis distributions of extrasolar planets. Astrophys. J. 604, 388–413 (2004)Google Scholar
  57. Inaba, S., Ikoma, M.: Enhanced collisional growth of a protoplanet that has an atmosphere. Astron. Astrophys. 410, 711–723 (2003)ADSGoogle Scholar
  58. Inaba, S., Wetherill, G.W., Ikoma, M.: Formation of gas giant planets: Core accretion models with fragmentation and planetary envelope. Icarus 166, 46–62 (2003)ADSGoogle Scholar
  59. Israelian, G., Santos, N.C., Mayor, M., Rebolo, R.: Evidence for planet engulfment by the star HD82943. Nature 411, 163–166 (2001)ADSGoogle Scholar
  60. Ito, T., Tanikawa, K.: Stability and instability of the terrestrial protoplanet system and their possible roles in the final stage of planet formation. Icarus 139, 336–349 (1999)ADSGoogle Scholar
  61. Ivanova, N., Taam, R.E.: Magnetic braking revisited. Astrophys. J. 599, 516–521 (2003)ADSGoogle Scholar
  62. Jaki, S.L.: Planets and planetarians: A history of theories of the origin of planetary systems. Wiley, NY (1977)Google Scholar
  63. Jayawardhana, R., Holland, W.S., Greaves, J.S., Dent, W.R.F., Marcy, G.W., Hartmann, L.W., Fazio, G.G.: Dust in the 55 Cancri planetary system. Astrophys. J. 536, 425–428 (2000)ADSGoogle Scholar
  64. Ji, J., Liu, L., Kinoshita, H., Li, G.: Could the 47 Ursae Majoris planetary system be a second solar system? Predicting the Earth-like planets. Astrophys. J. 631, 1191–1197 (2005)ADSGoogle Scholar
  65. Jones, B.W., Underwood, D.R., Sleep, P.N.: Prospects for habitable “Earths” in known exoplanetary systems. Astrophys. J. 622, 1091–1101 (2005)ADSGoogle Scholar
  66. Jones, B.W., Sleep, P.N., Underwood, D.R.: Which exoplanetary systems could harbour habitable planets? Int. J. Astrobiol. 5, 251–259 (2006)Google Scholar
  67. Jura, M., Chen, C.H., Furlan, E., Green, J., Sargent, B., Forrest, W.J., Watson, D.M., Barry, D.J., Hall, P., Herter, T.L., Houck, J.R., Sloan, G.C., Uchida, K., D’Alessio, P., Brandl, B.R., Keller, L.D., Kemper, F., Morris, P., Najita, J., Calvet, N., Hartmann, L., Myers, P.C.: Mid-infrared spectra of dust debris around main-sequence stars. Astrophys. J. Suppl. 154, 453–457 (2004)ADSGoogle Scholar
  68. Kalas, P., Graham, J.R., Chiang, E., Fitzgerald, M.P., Clampin, M., Kite, E.S., Stapelfeldt, K., Marois, C., Krist, J.: Optical images of an exosolar planet 25 light-years from earth. Science 322, 1345–1348 (2008)ADSGoogle Scholar
  69. Kennedy, G.M., Kenyon, S.J.: Planet formation around stars of various masses: The snow line and the frequency of giant planets. Astrophys. J. 673, 502–512 (2008)ADSGoogle Scholar
  70. Kinoshita, H., Nakai, H.: Stability of the GJ 876 planetary system. Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 53, L25–L26 (2001)ADSGoogle Scholar
  71. Kirkwood, D.: Meteoritic astronomy. Lipincott, Philadelphia (1867)Google Scholar
  72. Kleine, T., Münker, C., Mezger, K., Palme, H.: Rapid accretion and early core formation on asteroids and the terrestrial planets from Hf-W chronometry. Nature 418, 952–955 (2002)ADSGoogle Scholar
  73. Kley, W.: On the migration of a system of protoplanets. Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 313, L47–L51 (2000)ADSGoogle Scholar
  74. Kley, W., Peitz, J., Bryden, G.: Evolution of planetary systems in resonance. Astron. Astrophys. 414, 735–747 (2004)ADSGoogle Scholar
  75. Kokubo, E., Ida, S.: Formation of protoplanet systems and diversity of planetary systems. Astrophys. J. 581, 666–680 (2002)ADSGoogle Scholar
  76. Kokubo, E., Kominami, J., Ida, S.: Formation of terrestrial planets from protoplanets. I. Statistics of basic dynamical properties. Astrophys. J. 642, 1131–1139 (2006)Google Scholar
  77. Kowal, C.T., Drake, S.: Galileo’s observations of Neptune. Nature 287, 311–313 (1980)ADSGoogle Scholar
  78. Kozai, Y.: Secular perturbations of asteroids with high inclination and eccentricity. Astron. J. 67, 591–598 (1962)MathSciNetADSGoogle Scholar
  79. Kuiper, G.P.: On the origin of the solar system. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 37, 1–14 (1951)ADSGoogle Scholar
  80. Larson, R.B.: The physics of star formation. Rep. Progr. Phys. 66, 1651–1697 (2003)ADSGoogle Scholar
  81. Laskar, J.: A numerical experiment on the chaotic behaviour of the solar system. Nature 338, 237–238 (1989)ADSGoogle Scholar
  82. Laskar, J.: Chaotic diffusion in the Solar System. Icarus 196, 1–15 (2008)ADSGoogle Scholar
  83. Laughlin, G., Bodenheimer, P., Adams, F.C.: The core accretion model predicts few Jovian-mass planets orbiting red dwarfs. Astrophys. J. Lett. 612, L73–L76 (2004)ADSGoogle Scholar
  84. Lecar, M., Franklin, F.A., Holman, M.J., Murray, N.J.: Chaos in the solar system. Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 39, 581–631 (2001)ADSGoogle Scholar
  85. Levison, H.F., Lissauer, J.J., Duncan, M.J.: Modeling the diversity of outer planetary systems. Astron. J. 116, 1998–2014 (1998)ADSGoogle Scholar
  86. Levison, H.F., Morbidelli, A., Gomes, R., Backman, D.: Planet migration in planetesimal disks. In: Reipurth, B., Jewitt, D., Keil, K. (eds.) Protostars and Planets V, University of Arizona Press, Tucson, pp. 669–684 (2007)Google Scholar
  87. Lewin, R.: Complexity: Life at the edge of chaos. University of Chicago Press, IL (2000)Google Scholar
  88. Lin, D.N.C., Bodenheimer, P., Richardson, D.C.: Orbital migration of the planetary companion of 51 Pegasi to its present location. Nature 380, 606–607 (1996)ADSGoogle Scholar
  89. Lissauer, J.J., Rivera, E.J.: Stability analysis of the planetary system orbiting υ Andromedae. II. Simulations using new lick observatory fits. Astrophys. J. 554, 1141–1150 (2001)Google Scholar
  90. Lissauer, J.J., Quintana, E.V., Chambers, J.E., Duncan, M.J., Adams, F.C.: Terrestrial planet formation in binary star systems. In: Garcia-Segura, G., Tenorio-Tagle, G., Franco, J., Yorke, H.W. (eds.) Revista Mexicana de Astronomia y Astrofisica Conference Series, pp. 99–103 (2004)Google Scholar
  91. Lisse, C.M., Beichman, C.A., Bryden, G., Wyatt, M.C.: On the nature of the dust in the debris disk around HD 69830. Astrophys. J. 658, 584–592 (2007)ADSGoogle Scholar
  92. Lorenz, E.N.: Deterministic nonperiodic flow. J. Atmos. Sci. 20, 130–141 (1963)ADSGoogle Scholar
  93. Lorenz, E.: The essence of chaos. University of Washington Press, WA (1993)MATHGoogle Scholar
  94. Lovis, C., Mayor, M., Pepe, F., Alibert, Y., Benz, W., Bouchy, F., Correia, A.C.M., Laskar, J., Mordasini, C., Queloz, D., Santos, N.C., Udry, S., Bertaux, J.L., Sivan, J.P.: An extrasolar planetary system with three Neptune-mass planets. Nature 441, 305–309 (2006)ADSGoogle Scholar
  95. Lyttleton, R.A.: An accretion hypothesis for the origin of the solar system. Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 122, 399–407 (1961)MathSciNetADSGoogle Scholar
  96. Machida, M.N.: Binary formation in star-forming clouds with various metallicities. Astrophys. J. 682, L1–L4 (2008)ADSGoogle Scholar
  97. Malhotra, R.: The origin of Pluto’s orbit: Implications for the solar system beyond Neptune. Astron. J. 110, 420–429 (1995)ADSGoogle Scholar
  98. Malhotra, R., Holman, M., Ito, T.: Chaos and stability of the solar system. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 98, 12,342–12,343 (2001)Google Scholar
  99. Malmberg, D., Davies, M.B., Chambers, J.E.: The instability of planetary systems in binaries: how the Kozai mechanism leads to strong planet-planet interactions. Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 377, L1–L4 (2007)ADSGoogle Scholar
  100. Mandell, A.M., Raymond, S.N., Sigurdsson, S.: Formation of Earth-like planets during and after giant planet migration. Astrophys. J. 660, 823–844 (2007)ADSGoogle Scholar
  101. Matsumura, S., Pudritz, R.E., Thommes, E.W.: Saving planetary systems: Dead zones and planetary migration. Astrophys. J. 660, 1609–1623 (2007)ADSGoogle Scholar
  102. Mayor, M., Udry, S., Lovis, C., Pepe, F., Queloz, D., Benz, W., Bertaux, J.L., Bouchy, F., Mordasini, C., Segransan, D.: The HARPS search for southern extra-solar planets. XIII. A planetary system with 3 super-Earths (4.2, 6.9, and 9.2 M T). Astron. Astrophys. 493, 639–644 (2009a)ADSGoogle Scholar
  103. Mayor, M., Bonfils, X., Forveille, T., Delfosse, X., Udry, S., Bertaux, J.L., Beust, H., Bouchy, F., Lovis, C.L., Pepe, F., Perrier, C., Queloz, D., Santos, N.C.: The HARPS search for southern extra-solar planets. XVIII. An Earth-mass planet in the GJ 581 planetary system. Astron. Astrophys. 507, 487–494 (2009b)ADSGoogle Scholar
  104. McCrea, W.H.: The origin of the solar system. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series A, 256, 245–266 (1960)ADSGoogle Scholar
  105. McCrea, W.: Formation of the solar system – Brief review and revised protoplanet theory. In: Runcorn, S.K. (ed.) The Physics of the Planets: Their Origin, Evolution and Structure, pp. 421–439. Wiley, NY (1988)Google Scholar
  106. Menou, K., Tabachnik, S.: Dynamical habitability of known extrasolar planetary systems. Astrophys. J. 583, 473–488 (2003)ADSGoogle Scholar
  107. Meyer, M.R., Hillenbrand, L.A., Backman, D., Beckwith, S., Bouwman, J., Brooke, T., Carpenter, J., Cohen, M., Cortes, S., Crockett, N., Gorti, U., Henning, T., Hines, D., Hollenbach, D., Kim, J.S., Lunine, J., Malhotra, R., Mamajek, E., Metchev, S., Moro-Martin, A., Morris, P., Najita, J., Padgett, D., Pascucci, I., Rodmann, J., Schlingman, W., Silverstone, M., Soderblom, D., Stauffer, J., Stobie, E., Strom, S., Watson, D., Weidenschilling, S., Wolf, S., Young, E.: The formation and evolution of planetary systems: Placing our solar system in context with Spitzer. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 1690–1710 (2006)ADSGoogle Scholar
  108. Meyer, M.R., Carpenter, J.M., Mamajek, E.E., Hillenbrand, L.A., Hollenbach, D., Moro-Martin, A., Kim, J.S., Silverstone, M.D., Najita, J., Hines, D.C., Pascucci, I., Stauffer, J.R., Bouwman, J., Backman, D.E.: Evolution of mid-infrared excess around sun-like stars: Constraints on models of terrestrial planet formation. Astrophys. J. 673, L181–L184 (2008)ADSGoogle Scholar
  109. Michtchenko, T.A., Malhotra, R.: Secular dynamics of the three-body problem: application to the υ Andromedae planetary system. Icarus 168, 237–248 (2004)ADSGoogle Scholar
  110. Militzer, B., Hubbard, W.B., Vorberger, J., Tamblyn, I., Bonev, S.A.: A massive core in Jupiter predicted from first-principles simulations. Astrophys. J. 688, L45–L48 (2008)ADSGoogle Scholar
  111. Minton, D.A., Malhotra, R.: A record of planet migration in the main asteroid belt. Nature 457, 1109–1111 (2009)ADSGoogle Scholar
  112. Morbidelli, A., Levison, H.F., Tsiganis, K., Gomes, R.: Chaotic capture of Jupiter’s Trojan asteroids in the early solar system. Nature 435, 462–465 (2005)ADSGoogle Scholar
  113. Moulton, F.R.: On the evolution of the solar system. Astrophys. J. 22, 165–181 (1905)ADSGoogle Scholar
  114. Moulton, F.R.: An introduction to celestial mechanics. Second edition revised, Dover Publications (1970)Google Scholar
  115. Murray, N., Holman, M.: The origin of chaos in the outer solar system. Science 283, 1877–1881 (1999)ADSGoogle Scholar
  116. Musielak, Z.E., Cuntz, M., Marshall, E.A., Stuit, T.D.: Stability of planetary orbits in binary systems. Astron. Astrophys. 434, 355–364 (2005)ADSGoogle Scholar
  117. Natta, A., Testi, L., Calvet, N., Henning, T., Waters, R., Wilner, D.: Dust in protoplanetary disks: Properties and evolution. In: Reipurth, B., Jewitt, D., Keil, K. (eds.) Protostars and Planets V, University of Arizona Press, Tucson, pp. 767–781 (2007)Google Scholar
  118. Noble, M., Musielak, Z.E., Cuntz, M.: Orbital stability of terrestrial planets inside the habitable zones of extrasolar planetary systems. Astrophys. J. 572, 1024–1030 (2002)ADSGoogle Scholar
  119. Papaloizou, J.C.B., Terquem, C.: Planet formation and migration. Rep. Progr. Phys. 69, 119–180 (2006)ADSGoogle Scholar
  120. Pascucci, I., Gorti, U., Hollenbach, D., Najita, J., Meyer, M.R., Carpenter, J.M., Hillenbrand, L.A., Herczeg, G.J., Padgett, D.L., Mamajek, E.E., Silverstone, M.D., Schlingman, W.M., Kim, J.S., Stobie, E.B., Bouwman, J., Wolf, S., Rodmann, J., Hines, D.C., Lunine, J., Malhotra, R.: Formation and evolution of planetary systems: Upper limits to the gas mass in disks around sun-like stars. Astrophys. J. 651, 1177–1193 (2006)ADSGoogle Scholar
  121. Payne, M.J., Ford, E.B., Wyatt, M.C., Booth, M.: Dynamical simulations of the planetary system HD69830. Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 393, 1219–1234 (2009)ADSGoogle Scholar
  122. Peale, S.J.: Rotation histories of the natural satellites, pp. 87–111. IAU Colloq. 28: Planetary satellites (1977)Google Scholar
  123. Pepe, F., Correia, A.C.M., Mayor, M., Tamuz, O., Couetdic, J., Benz, W., Bertaux, J.L., Bouchy, F., Laskar, J., Lovis, C., Naef, D., Queloz, D., Santos, N.C., Sivan, J.P., Sosnowska, D., Udry, S.: The HARPS search for southern extra-solar planets. VIII. μ Arae, a system with four planets. Astron. Astrophys. 462, 769–776 (2007)ADSGoogle Scholar
  124. Pepliński, A., Artymowicz, P., Mellema, G.: Numerical simulations of type III planetary migration - I. Disc model and convergence tests. Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 386, 164–178 (2008a)ADSGoogle Scholar
  125. Pepliński, A., Artymowicz, P., Mellema, G.: Numerical simulations of type III planetary migration - II. Inward migration of massive planets. Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 386, 179–198 (2008b)ADSGoogle Scholar
  126. Pepliński, A., Artymowicz, P., Mellema, G.: Numerical simulations of type III planetary migration - III. Outward migration of massive planets. Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 387, 1063–1079 (2008c)ADSGoogle Scholar
  127. Peterson, I.: Newton’s clock: Chaos in the solar system. Freeman, New York (1993)Google Scholar
  128. Poincaré, N.: Sur le probleme de tres corps et les équations de la dynamique. Acta Math. 13, 1–270 (1890)Google Scholar
  129. Poincaré, N.: Les Méthodes nouvelles de la Mécanique Céleste. 3 volumes, Gauthier-Villars, Paris (1892)Google Scholar
  130. Pontoppidan, K.M., Blake, G.A., van Dishoeck, E.F., Smette, A., Ireland, M.J., Brown, J.: Spectroastrometric imaging of molecular gas within protoplanetary disk gaps. Astrophys. J. 684, 1323–1329 (2008)ADSGoogle Scholar
  131. Raymond, S.N.: The search for other earths: Limits on the giant planet orbits that allow habitable terrestrial planets to form. Astrophys. J. 643, L131–L134 (2006)ADSGoogle Scholar
  132. Raymond, S.N., Barnes, R.: Predicting planets in known extrasolar planetary systems. II. Testing for saturn mass planets. Astrophys. J. 619, 549–557 (2005)Google Scholar
  133. Raymond, S.N., Quinn, T., Lunine, J.I.: Terrestrial planet formation in disks with varying surface density profiles. Astrophys. J. 632, 670–676 (2005)ADSGoogle Scholar
  134. Raymond, S.N., Quinn, T., Lunine, J.I.: High-resolution simulations of the final assembly of Earth-like planets I. Terrestrial accretion and dynamics. Icarus 183, 265–282 (2006)Google Scholar
  135. Raymond, S.N., Scalo, J., Meadows, V.S.: A decreased probability of habitable planet formation around low-mass stars. Astrophys. J. 669, 606–614 (2007)ADSGoogle Scholar
  136. Raymond, S.N., Barnes, R., Gorelick, N.: A dynamical perspective on additional planets in 55 Cancri. Astrophys. J. 808 (2008)Google Scholar
  137. Raymond, S.N., Barnes, R., Veras, D., Armitage, P.J., Gorelick, N., Greenberg, R.: Planet-planet scattering leads to tightly packed planetary systems. Astrophys. J. 696, L98–L101 (2009)ADSGoogle Scholar
  138. Rice, W.K.M., Armitage, P.J., Hogg, D.F.: Why are there so few hot Jupiters? Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 384, 1242–1248 (2008)ADSGoogle Scholar
  139. Rieke, G.H., Su, K.Y.L., Stansberry, J.A., Trilling, D., Bryden, G., Muzerolle, J., White, B., Gorlova, N., Young, E.T., Beichman, C.A., Stapelfeldt, K.R., Hines, D.C.: Decay of planetary debris disks. Astrophys. J. 620, 1010–1026 (2005)ADSGoogle Scholar
  140. Rivera, E.J., Lissauer, J.J., Butler, R.P., Marcy, G.W., Vogt, S.S., Fischer, D.A., Brown, T.M., Laughlin, G., Henry, G.W.: A 7.5 M E planet orbiting the nearby star, GJ 876. Astrophys. J. 634, 625–640 (2005)Google Scholar
  141. Rubenstein, E.P., Schaefer, B.E.: Are superflares on solar analogues caused by extrasolar planets? Astrophys. J. 529, 1031–1033 (2000)ADSGoogle Scholar
  142. Russell, H.N.: The solar system and its origin. The Macmillan Company, New York (1935)Google Scholar
  143. Sándor, Z., Süli, Á., Érdi, B., Pilat-Lohinger, E., Dvorak, R.: A stability catalogue of the habitable zones in extrasolar planetary systems. Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 375, 1495–1502 (2007)ADSGoogle Scholar
  144. Saumon, D., Guillot, T.: Shock compression of deuterium and the interiors of Jupiter and Saturn. Astrophys. J. 609, 1170–1180 (2004)ADSGoogle Scholar
  145. Schmidt, O.Y.: Dokl. Akad. Nauk. USSR 45, No. 6, 229–233 (1944)Google Scholar
  146. Schwarz, R., Pilat-Lohinger, E., Dvorak, R., Érdi, B., Sándor, Z.: Trojans in habitable zones. Astrobiology 5, 579–586 (2005)ADSGoogle Scholar
  147. Selsis, F., Kasting, J.F., Levrard, B., Paillet, J., Ribas, I., Delfosse, X.: Habitable planets around the star Gliese 581? Astron. Astrophys. 476, 1373–1387 (2007)ADSGoogle Scholar
  148. Shankland, P.D., Blank, D.L., Boboltz, D.A., Lazio, T.J.W., White, G.: Further Constraints on the presence of a debris disk in the multiplanet system Gliese 876. Astron. J. 135, 2194–2198 (2008)ADSGoogle Scholar
  149. Shu, F.H., Adams, F.C., Lizano, S.: Star formation in molecular clouds - Observation and theory. Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 25, 23–81 (1987)ADSGoogle Scholar
  150. Smith, B.A., Terrile, R.J.: A circumstellar disk around Beta Pictoris. Science 226, 1421–1424 (1984)ADSGoogle Scholar
  151. Soter, S.: Are planetary systems filled to capacity? Am. Sci. 95, 414–421 (2007)Google Scholar
  152. Su, K.Y.L., Rieke, G.H., Misselt, K.A., Stansberry, J.A., Moro-Martin, A., Stapelfeldt, K.R., Werner, M.W., Trilling, D.E., Bendo, G.J., Gordon, K.D., Hines, D.C., Wyatt, M.C., Holland, W.S., Marengo, M., Megeath, S.T., Fazio, G.G.: The vega debris disk: A surprise from Spitzer. Astrophys. J. 628, 487–500 (2005)ADSGoogle Scholar
  153. Süli, Á., Dvorak, R., Freistetter, F.: The stability of the terrestrial planets with a more massive Earth. Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 363, 241–250 (2005)ADSGoogle Scholar
  154. Tabor, M.: Non-linear dynamics: An introduction. Wiley, New York (1989)Google Scholar
  155. Takeda, G., Kita, R., Rasio, F.A.: Planetary systems in binaries. I. dynamical classification. ArXiv e-prints 802 (2008)Google Scholar
  156. Tanaka, H., Takeuchi, T., Ward, W.R.: Three-dimensional interaction between a planet and an isothermal gaseous disk. I. Corotation and lindblad torques and planet migration. Astrophys. J. 565, 1257–1274 (2002)Google Scholar
  157. Ter Haar, D.: Further studies on the origin of the solar system. Astrophys. J. 111, 179–190 (1950)ADSGoogle Scholar
  158. Terquem, C.E.J.M.L.J.: Stopping inward planetary migration by a toroidal magnetic field. Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 341, 1157–1173 (2003)Google Scholar
  159. Thommes, E.W.: A safety net for fast migrators: Interactions between gap-opening and sub-gap-opening bodies in a protoplanetary disk. Astrophys. J. 626, 1033–1044 (2005)ADSGoogle Scholar
  160. Trilling, D.E., Benz, W., Guillot, T., Lunine, J.I., Hubbard, W.B., Burrows, A.: Orbital evolution and migration of giant planets: Modeling extrasolar planets. Astrophys. J. 500, 428–439 (1998)ADSGoogle Scholar
  161. Trilling, D.E., Stansberry, J.A., Stapelfeldt, K.R., Rieke, G.H., Su, K.Y.L., Gray, R.O., Corbally, C.J., Bryden, G., Chen, C.H., Boden, A., Beichman, C.A.: Debris disks in main-sequence binary systems. Astrophys. J. 658, 1289–1311 (2007)ADSGoogle Scholar
  162. Trilling, D.E., Bryden, G., Beichman, C.A., Rieke, G.H., Su, K.Y.L., Stansberry, J.A., Blaylock, M., Stapelfeldt, K.R., Beeman, J.W., Haller, E.E.: Debris disks around sun-like stars. Astrophys. J. 674, 1086–1105 (2008)ADSGoogle Scholar
  163. Tsiganis, K., Gomes, R., Morbidelli, A., Levison, H.F.: Origin of the orbital architecture of the giant planets of the solar system. Nature435, 459–461 (2005)ADSGoogle Scholar
  164. Van Boekel, R., Min, M., Leinert, C., Waters, L.B.F.M., Richichi, A., Chesneau, O., Dominik, C., Jaffe, W., Dutrey, A., Graser, U., Henning, T., de Jong, J., Köhler, R., de Koter, A., Lopez, B., Malbet, F., Morel, S., Paresce, F., Perrin, G., Preibisch, T., Przygodda, F., Schöller, M., Wittkowski, M.: The building blocks of planets within the terrestrial region of protoplanetary disks. Nature 432, 479–482 (2004)ADSGoogle Scholar
  165. von Bloh, W., Bounama, C., Franck, S.: Dynamic habitability for Earth-like planets in 86 extrasolar planetary systems. Planet. Space Sci. 55, 651–660 (2007a)ADSGoogle Scholar
  166. von Bloh, W., Bounama, C., Cuntz, M., Franck, S.: The habitability of super-Earths in Gliese 581. Astron. Astrophys. 476, 1365–1371 (2007b)ADSGoogle Scholar
  167. Wajer, P.: 2002 AA29: Earth’s recurrent quasi-satellite? Icarus 200, 147–153 (2009)ADSGoogle Scholar
  168. Ward, W.R.: On disk-planet interactions and orbital eccentricities. Icarus 73, 330–348 (1988)ADSGoogle Scholar
  169. Weidenschilling, S.J., Marzari, F.: Gravitational scattering as a possible origin for giant planets at small stellar distances. Nature 384, 619–621 (1996)ADSGoogle Scholar
  170. Weizsäcker, C.F.V.: Über die Entstehung des Planetensystems. Zeitschrift fur Astrophysik 22, 319–355 (1943)MATHADSGoogle Scholar
  171. Williams, D.M., Pollard, D.: Habitable Planets on Eccentric Orbits. In: Montesinos, B., Gimenez, A., Guinan, E.F. (eds.) The Evolving Sun and its Influence on Planetary Environments, Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, vol. 269, pp. 201–213 (2002)Google Scholar
  172. Wisdom, J.: Meteorites may follow a chaotic route to Earth. Nature 315, 731–733 (1985)ADSGoogle Scholar
  173. Woolfson, M.M.: A capture theory of the origin of the solar system. Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. A 282, 485–507 (1964)MathSciNetADSGoogle Scholar
  174. Woolfson, M.M.: The capture theory and the origin of the solar system, pp. 179–198. In: Origin of the Solar System (1978)Google Scholar
  175. Wright, J.T., Marcy, G.W., Fischer, D.A., Butler, R.P., Vogt, S.S., Tinney, C.G., Jones, H.R.A., Carter, B.D., Johnson, J.A., McCarthy, C., Apps, K.: Four new exoplanets and hints of additional substellar companions to exoplanet host stars. Astrophys. J. 657, 533–545 (2007)ADSGoogle Scholar
  176. Wyatt, M.C.: Evolution of debris disks. Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 46, 339–383 (2008)ADSGoogle Scholar
  177. Wyatt, M.C., Holland, W.S., Greaves, J.S., Dent, W.R.F.: Extrasolar analogues to the Kuiper belt. Earth Moon Planet 92, 423–434 (2003)ADSGoogle Scholar
  178. Yin, Q., Jacobsen, S.B., Yamashita, K., Blichert-Toft, J., Télouk, P., Albarède, F.: A short timescale for terrestrial planet formation from Hf-W chronometry of meteorites. Nature 418, 949–952 (2002)ADSGoogle Scholar
  179. Zapatero Osorio, M.R., Caballero, J.A., Béjar, V.J.S., Rebolo, R., Barrado Y Navascués, D., Bihain, G., Eislöffel, J., Martín, E.L., Bailer-Jones, C.A.L., Mundt, R., Forveille, T., Bouy, H.: Discs of planetary-mass objects in σ Orionis. Astron. Astrophys. 472, L9–L12 (2007)ADSGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Vázquez
    • 1
  • E. Pallé
    • 1
  • P. Montañés Rodríguez
    • 1
  1. 1.Instituto de Astrofísica de CanariasTenerifeSpain

Personalised recommendations