The Outer Layers of the Earth

  • M. Vázquez
  • E. Pallé
  • P. Montañés Rodríguez
Part of the Astronomy and Astrophysics Library book series (AAL)


The outermost layers of our planet are the best laboratory for studying the interaction of their components with high-energy radiation (X- and UV rays), solar wind and cosmic rays. This tenuous layer of neutral and charged particles shields the troposphere of our planet from the effects of energetic photons and, together with the magnetosphere, the action of subatomic particles. The extremes of the electromagnetic spectrum (XUV, Radio) are the best ranges in which to observe these layers from outer space.


Solar Wind Radiation Belt International Reference Ionosphere Lower Thermosphere Earth Radius 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Vázquez
    • 1
  • E. Pallé
    • 1
  • P. Montañés Rodríguez
    • 1
  1. 1.Instituto de Astrofísica de CanariasTenerifeSpain

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