Spine Anatomy and Sonoanatomy for Pain Physicians
First and far most recognition of limits in performing ultrasound (US) imaging of the spine, associated spaces and joints is imperative before feasibilities may be fully appreciated. It is thus not surprising that some of the descriptions on approaches within parts of the spine (and pelvis) by means of sonography were published that can simply not withstand critical analysis. In addition, more than elsewhere in applying US in pain medicine one has to be familiar with the usage of the right transducer (frequency) in the right area at individual patients and different settings. That way, all available transducers, technologies and possible frequencies play a practical role in proper spine imaging! Finally, influence of positioning, movements and alterations of the spine (and thus age!) are tremendous and may either be challenging or make manoeuvres impossible.