Cluster-Based Irresponsible Forwarding

  • Stefano BusanelliEmail author
  • Gianluigi Ferrari
  • Sooksan Panichpapiboon
Conference paper


In a self-organizing Vehicular Ad-hoc NETwork (VANET), vehicles share and distribute information by rebroadcasting a received information packet to their neighbors. An efficient broadcast technique can offer a high reactivity without sacrificing the communication reliability. Therefore, multihop broadcast techniques are particularly suitable for safety-related vehicular transmissions, whose goal is reaching reliably the widest area in the shortest possible time. In this chapter, we present cluster-based irresponsible forwarding (CIF), a novel broadcast multihop forwarding protocol, that integrates the recently proposed IF probabilistic forwarding approach with a loosely structured clustered architecture. The clusters of vehicles that naturally form in VANET are typically “ephemeral” and tend to be a source of network congestion that penalizes the performance of “pure” probabilistic approaches. CIF attempts to recognize the presence of ephemeral clusters and adapts its forwarding strategy to the underlaying instantaneous network topology. In other words, CIF does not impose a clustered architecture but, rather, exploits the naturally ephemeral clustered architecture of VANETs. Through an accurate simulation analysis carried out in IEEE 802.11 networks, we assess the validity of this broadcast technique, showing a significant reliability improvement with respect to a more traditional pure probabilistic forwarding.


Medium Access Control Transmission Range Medium Access Control Protocol Transmission Efficiency Medium Access Control Layer 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Li F, Wang Y (2007) Routing in vehicular ad hoc networks: a survey. IEEE Mag Vehicular Technol 2(2):12–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lin CR and Gerla M (1997) Adaptive clustering for mobile wireless networks. IEEE J Sel Areas Commun 15(7):1265–1275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Fiore M and Härri J (2008) The networking shape of vehicular mobility. In: Proceedings of the ACM international symposium on mobile ad hoc networking and computing (MobiHoc ’08), New York, ACM, pp 261–272Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Wang Z, Liu L, Zhou M, Ansari N (2008) A position-based clustering technique for ad hoc intervehicle communication. IEEE Trans Syst Man Cybern C: Appl Rev 38(2):201–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bononi L, Felice MD (2007) A cross layered MAC and clustering scheme for efficient broadcast in VANETs. In: IEEE internatonal conference on mobile adhoc and sensor systems ( MASS 2007), Montreal, QC October 2007, pp 1–8Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Panichpapiboon S, Ferrari G (2008) Irresponsbile forwarding. In: Proceedings of the IEEE, 8th international conference on intelligent transport system telecommuniction (ITST’08). Phuket, Thailand, October 2008, pp 311–316Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Insitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (2007) IEEE Std 802.11TM-2007. Part 11: wireless LAN medium access ontrol (MAC) and physical layer (PHY) specificationsGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Busanelli S, Ferrari G, Panichpapiboon S (2009) Efficient Broadcasting in (IEEE) 802.11 Networks through Irresponsible Forwarding. Proc. IEEE Global Telecommun. Conf. (GLOBECOM), Honolulu, HI, USA, October 2009Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ni S, Tseng Y, Chen Y, Sheu J (1999) The broadcast storm problem in a mobile ad hoc network. In: Proceedings of the ACM international conference on mobile computing and networking (MOBICOM), Seattle, WA, pp 151–162Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Network Simulator 2 (ns-2). [Online]. Available:
  11. 11.
    Rappaport TS (2002) Wireless communications. In: Principles & Practice, 2nd edn. Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Biswas S, Tatchikou R, Dion F (2006) Vehicle-to-vehicle wireless communication protocols for enhancing highway traffic safety. IEEE Commun Mag 44(1):74–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Torrent-Moreno M, Mittag J, Santi P, Hartenstein H (2009) Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communication: Fair Transmit Power Control for Safety-Critical Information. IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol, September 2009, 58(7):3684–3707CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stefano Busanelli
    • 1
    Email author
  • Gianluigi Ferrari
    • 1
  • Sooksan Panichpapiboon
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Information Engineering, CNIT Research UNITUniversity of ParmaParmaItaly
  2. 2.Faculty of Information TechnologyKing Mongkut’s Institute of Technology LadkrabangBangkokThailand

Personalised recommendations