Advertisement

Narrative and Pain: Towards an Integrative Model

  • David B. Morris
Chapter

Abstract

Doctors and health-care professionals have recently developed a vigorous new interest in narrative. The new medical interest (obvious in the titles and subtitles of research studies) follows the success of a so-called narrative turn in psychology, education, social sciences, political thought, policy analysis, law, theology, and cognitive science (The travelling concept of narrative, 2006, pp 20–41). A narrative turn has even supplied the framework for an entire rethinking of medical education and practice, as described in an important JAMA article on “narrative medicine” (Journal of the American Medical Association 286: 1897–1902, 2001). This new medical attention to narrative is international and cross-cultural. The British Medical Journal published a series of articles on “narrative-based medicine,” subsequently collected as a book (Narrative based medicine: Dialogue and discourse in clinical practice, 1998). It is now accurate, as awareness deepens, to speak of narrative-based medicines, plural, indigenous as well as postindustrial (The Permanente Journal 12: 88–96, 2008). Pain medicine too has begun to explore narrative. In 2005, the International Association for the Study of Pain published Narrative, Pain and Suffering (Narrative, pain, and suffering, 2005), and medical journals regularly include studies that employ narrative as an instrument for understanding pain and pain-related states. The traditional medical landscape—where narrative was barely tolerated as a sign of high culture—has changed forever.

Keywords

Chronic Pain Integrative Model Trigeminal Neuralgia Chronic Pain Patient Human Consciousness 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. American Pain Society Quality of Care Committee. (1995). Quality improvement guidelines for the treatment of acute pain and cancer pain. Journal of the American Medical Association, 274(23), 1874–1880.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Audette, J. F., & Bailey, A. (Eds.). (2008). Integrative pain medicine: The science and practice of complementary and alternative medicine in pain management. New York: Humana Press.Google Scholar
  3. Barnard, D., Towers, A., Boston, P., & Lambrinidou, Y. (2000). Crossing over: Narratives of palliative care. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Bates, D. (2009). Woman with two wombs gives birth to a one-in-a-million baby girl. Mail Online, 16 July. Retrieved December 10, 2009, from http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-1199831/Woman-wombs-gives-birth-million-baby-girl.html.
  5. Bayer, T., Baer, P. E., & Early, C. (1991). Situational and psychophysiological factors in psychologically induced pain. Pain, 44(1), 45–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bennett, M. D., & Gibson, J. M. (2006). A field guide to good decisions: Values in action. New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
  7. Bigos, S. J., Battié, M. C., Spengler, D. M., Fisher, L. D., Fordyce, W. E., Hansson, T. H., Nachemson, A. L., & Wortley, M. D. (1991). A prospective study of work perceptions and psychosocial factors affecting the report of back injury. Spine, 16(1), 1–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Blackhall, L. J., Murphy, S. T., Frank, G., Michel, V., & Azen, S. (1995). Ethnicity and attitudes toward patient autonomy. Journal of the American Medical Association, 274(10), 820–825.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Breitbart, W., Rosenfeld, B. D., Passik, S. D., McDonald, M. V., Thaler, H., & Portenoy, R. K. (1996). The undertreatment of pain in ambulatory AIDS patients. Pain, 65(2–3), 243–249.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brody, H. (1994). “My story is broken; can you help me fix it?” Medical ethics and the joint construction of narrative. Literature and Medicine, 13(1), 79–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brox, J. I., Rejkeras, O., Nygaard, O., Sorensen, R., Indahl, A., Holm, I., et al. (2006). Lumbar instrumented fusion compared with cognitive intervention and exercises in patients with chronic back pain after previous surgery for disc herniation: A prospective randomized controlled study. Pain, 122(1–2), 4–5.Google Scholar
  12. Bruner, J. (1990). Acts of meaning. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Carr, D. B. (2005). Memoir of a meta-analyst: On the silent “l” in “qualnitative”. In D. B. Carr, J. D. Loeser, & D. B. Morris (Eds.), Narrative, pain, and suffering (pp. 325–354). Seattle: IASP Press.Google Scholar
  14. Carr, D. B., Loeser, J. D., & Morris, D. B. (Eds.). (2005). Narrative, pain, and suffering. Seattle: IASP Press.Google Scholar
  15. Carter, B. (2004). Pain narratives and narrative practitioners: A way of working “in-relation” with children experiencing pain. Journal of Nursing Management, 12(3), 210–216.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cassel, E. J. (1982). The nature of suffering the goals of medicine. The New England Journal of Medicine, 306(11), 639–645.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chambers, T. (1996). From the ethicist’s point of view: The literary nature of ethical inquiry. The Hastings Center Report, 26(1), 25–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Charon, R. (2001). Narrative medicine: A model for empathy, reflection, profession, and trust. Journal of the American Medical Association, 286(15), 1897–1902.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Charon, R. (2005). A narrative medicine for pain. In D. B. Carr, J. D. Loeser, & D. B. Morris (Eds.), Narrative, pain, and suffering (pp. 29–44). Seattle: IASP Press.Google Scholar
  20. Charon, R., & Montello, M. (Eds.). (2002). Stories matter: The role of narrative in medical ethics. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  21. Coakley, S., & Shelemay, K. K. (Eds.). (2007). Pain and its transformations: The interface of biology and culture. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  22. Corbett, M., Foster, N. E., & Ong, B. N. (2007). Living with low back pain: Stories of hope and despair. Social Science & Medicine, 65(8), 1584–1594.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. DasGupta, S., & Hurst, M. (2007). Stories of illness and healing: Women write their bodies. Kent, OH: The Kent State University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Davis, L. J., & Morris, D. B. (2007). Biocultures manifesto. New Literary History, 38(3), 411–418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Diedrich, L. (2007). Treatments: Language, politics, and the culture of illness. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  26. Dwyer, T., & Raftery, A. E. (1991). Industrial accidents are produced by social relations of work: A sociological theory of industrial accidents. Applied Ergonomics, 22(3), 167–178.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Eakin, J. P. (1999). How our lives become stories: Making selves. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Eccleston, C., Williams, A. C., & Rogers, W. S. (1997). Patients’ and professionals’ understandings of the causes of chronic pain: Blame, responsibility and identity protection. Social Science & Medicine, 45(5), 699–709.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Fine, P. (2011). Recognition and resolution of ethical barriers to palliative care research. In R. J. Moore (Ed.), Handbook of pain and palliative care. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  30. Fireman, G. D., McVay, T. E., Jr., & Flanagan, O. J. (Eds.). (2003). Narrative and consciousness: Literature, psychology, and the brain. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  31. Fordyce, W. E. (Ed.). (1995). Back pain in the workplace: Management of disability in nonspecific conditions. Seattle: IASP Press.Google Scholar
  32. Foucault, M. (1973). The birth of the clinic: An archaeology of medical perception (A. M. S. Smith, Trans.). New York: Pantheon Books. (First published in French in 1963).Google Scholar
  33. Frank, A. W. (1995). The wounded storyteller: Body, illness, and ethics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Gawande, A. (2002). Complications: A surgeon’s notes on an imperfect science. New York: Henry Holt and Company.Google Scholar
  35. Ghaemi, S. N. (2009). The rise and fall of the biopsychosocial model: Reconciling art and science in psychiatry. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Goldberg, D. S. (2010). Job and the stigmatization of chronic pain. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, 53(3), 425–438.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Gottschall, J., & Wilson, D. S. (Eds.). (2005). The literary animal: Evolution and the nature of narrative. Evanston: Northwestern University Press.Google Scholar
  38. Green, C. (2011). Disparities in pain management and palliative care. In R. J. Moore (Ed.), Handbook of pain and palliative care. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  39. Green, C. R., Anderson, K. O., Baker, T. A., Campbell, L. C., Decker, S., Fillingim, R. B., et al. (2003). The unequal burden of pain: Confronting racial and ethnic disparities in pain. Pain Medicine, 4(3), 277–294.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Greenhalgh, T., & Hurwitz, B. (1998). Narrative based medicine: Dialogue and discourse in clinical practice. London: BMJ Books.Google Scholar
  41. Gumbrecht, H. L. (2004). Production of presence: What meaning cannot convey. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  42. Hallenbeck, J. (2011). Pain and intercultural communication. In R. J. Moore (Ed.), Handbook of pain and palliative care. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  43. Herman, D. (Ed.). (2007). The Cambridge companion to narrative. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  44. Hirstein, W. (2006). Brain fiction: Self-deception and the riddle of confabulation. Cambridge: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
  45. Holloway, I., Sofaer-Bennett, B., & Walker, J. (2007). The stigmatisation of people with chronic back pain. Disability and Rehabilitation, 29(18), 1456–1464.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Holstein, J., & Gubrium, J. (2000). The self we live by: Narrative identity in a postmodern world. New York: Oxford UP.Google Scholar
  47. Hunter, K. (1991). Doctors’ stories: The narrative structure of medical knowledge. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  48. Hyvärinen, M. (2006). Towards a conceptual history of narrative. In M. Hyvärinen, A. Korhonen, & J. Mykkänen (Eds.), The travelling concept of narrative (pp. 20–41). Helsinki: Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies.Google Scholar
  49. Iser, W. (1978). The act of reading: A theory of aesthetic response. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. (First published in German in 1976).Google Scholar
  50. Jauss, H. R. (1982). Toward an aesthetic of reception (T. Bahti, Trans.). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  51. Jensen, M. C., Brant-Zawadzki, M. N., Obuchowski, N., Modic, M. T., Malkasian, D., & Ross, J. S. (1994). Magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine in people without back pain. The New England Journal of Medicine, 331(2), 69–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Jensen, M. P., & Karoly, P. (1992). Pain-specific beliefs, perceived symptom severity, and adjustment to chronic pain. The Clinical Journal of Pain, 8(2), 123–130.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Jensen, M. P., Turner, J. A., Romano, J. M., & Karoly, P. (1991). Coping with chronic pain: A critical review of the literature. Pain, 47(3), 249–283.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kazis, L. E., Ren, X. S., Lee, A., Skinner, K., Rogers, W., Clark, J., & Miller, D. R. (1999). Health status in VA patients: Results from the Veterans Health Study. American Journal of Medical Quality, 14(1), 28–38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kearney, R. (2002). On narrative. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  56. Keogh, E. (2011). Sex differences in pain across the life course. In R. J. Moore (Ed.), Handbook of pain and palliative care. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  57. King, D. W. (2008). African Americans and the culture of pain. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press.Google Scholar
  58. Kleinman, A. (1988). The illness narratives: Suffering, healing and the human condition. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  59. Koyama, T., McHaffie, J. G., Laurienti, P. J., & Coghill, R. C. (2005). The subjective experience of pain: Where expectations become reality. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 102(36), 12950–12955.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Kutner, J., & Smith, M. (2011). CAM in chronic pain and palliative care. In R. J. Moore (Ed.), Handbook of pain and palliative care. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  61. Lame, I. E., Peters, M. L., Vlaeyen, J. W., Kleef, M., & Patijn, J. (2005). Quality of life in chronic pain is more associated with beliefs about pain, than with pain intensity. European Journal of Pain, 9(1), 15–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Loeser, J. D. (1991). What is chronic pain? Theoretical Medicine, 12(3), 214–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Lopez, S. J., & Snyder, C. R. (Eds.). (2009). Oxford handbook of positive psychology (2nd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  64. Macherey, P. (1978). A theory of literary production (G. Wall, Trans.). London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. (First published in French in 1966).Google Scholar
  65. Madigan, S. (2010). Narrative therapy. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  66. Markovic, M., Manderson, L., & Warren, N. (2008). Endurance and contest: Women’s narratives of endometriosis. Health (London), 12(3), 349–367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Mattingly, C., & Garro, L. C. (2000). Narrative and the cultural construction of illness and healing. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  68. May, S. (2011). Chronic low back pain. In R. J. Moore (Ed.), Handbook of pain and palliative care. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  69. McGowan, L., Luker, K., Creed, F., & Chew-Graham, C. A. (2007). “How do you explain a pain that can’t be seen?” The narratives of women with chronic pelvic pain and their disengagement with the diagnostic cycle. British Journal of Health Psychology, 12(Pt 2), 261–274.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. McKee, R. (1997). Story: Substance, structure, style, and the principles of screenwriting. New York: HarperCollins.Google Scholar
  71. Meldrum, M. L., Tsao, J. C.-I., & Zeltner, L. K. (2009). “I can’t be what I want to be”: Children’s narratives of chronic pain experiences and treatment outcomes. Pain Medicine, 10(6), 1018–1034.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Melzack, R. (1999). From the gate to the neuromatrix. Pain, 82(Suppl 1), S121–S126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Mendelson, G. (1992). Compensation and chronic pain. Pain, 48(2), 121–123.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Merskey, H., & Bogduk, N. (Eds.). (1994). Classification of chronic pain: Descriptions of chronic pain syndromes and definitions of pain terms (2nd ed.). Seattle: IASP Press.Google Scholar
  75. Michael, M., & Sengers, P. (2003). Narrative intelligence. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
  76. Miller, J. H. (1998). Reading narrative. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.Google Scholar
  77. Morone, N. E., Lynch, C. S., Greco, C. M., Tindle, H. A., & Weiner, D. K. (2008). “I felt like a new person”. The effects of mindfulness meditation on older adults with chronic pain: Qualitative narrative analysis of diary entries. The Journal of Pain, 9(9), 841–848.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Morris, D. B. (1991). The culture of pain. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  79. Morris, D. B. (1998). Illness and culture in the postmodern age. Berkeley: University of California Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Morris, D. B. (2001). Ethnicity and pain. Pain Clinical Updates, 9(4), 1–4.Google Scholar
  81. Morris, D. B. (2002). Narrative, ethics, and pain: Thinking with stories. In R. Charon & M. Montello (Eds.), Stories matter: The role of narrative in medical ethics (pp. 196–218). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  82. Morris, D. B. (2003). Ethics beyond guidelines: Culture, pain, and conflict. In J. O. Dostrovsky, D. B. Carr, & M. Koltzenburg (Eds.), Proceedings of the 10th world congress on pain (pp. 37–48). Seattle: IASP Press.Google Scholar
  83. Morris, D. B. (2005). Success stories. In D. B. Carr, J. D. Loeser, & D. B. Morris (Eds.), Narrative, pain, and suffering (pp. 269–285). Seattle: IASP Press.Google Scholar
  84. Morris, D. B. (2008). Narrative medicines: Challenge and resistance. The Permanente Journal, 12(1), 88–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Morris, D. B. (2009). Foreword. In L. Heshusius. Inside chronic pain: An intimate and critical account (pp. xii–xvii). Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  86. Morris, D. B. (2010a). Intractable pain and the perception of time: Every patient is an anecdote. In C. Stannard, E. Kalso, & J. Ballantyne (Eds.), Evidence-based chronic pain management (pp. 52–58). Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Morris, D. B. (2010b). Sociocultural dimensions of pain management. In J. C. Ballantyne, J. P. Rathmell, & S. M. Fishman (Eds.), Bonica’s management of pain (4th ed., pp. 133–145). New York: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.Google Scholar
  88. National Center for Health Statistics. (2009). Health, United States, 2009 with special feature on medical technology. DHHS publication no. 2010–1232. Washington: Department of Health and Human Services.Google Scholar
  89. Nelson, H. (Ed.). (1997). Stories and their limits: Narrative approaches to bioethics. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  90. Newman, K. (2005). The case for the narrative brain. In Y. Pisan (Ed.), Proceedings of the Second Australasian Conference on Interactive Entertainment (pp. 145–149). Sydney, Australia: Creativity and Cognition Studios Press, University of Technology.Google Scholar
  91. Nicolaidis, C. (2002). The Voices of Survivors documentary: Using patient narrative to educate physicians about domestic violence. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 17(2), 117–124.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Palermo, Y. (2011). The art of pain: The patient’s perspective of chronic pain. In R. J. Moore (Ed.), Handbook of pain and palliative care. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  93. Parker-Pope, T. (2010). Love and pain relief. New York Times, 13 October 2010. Retrieved October 13, 2010, from http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0013309.
  94. Pollo, A., & Benedetti, F. (2011). Pain and the placebo/nocebo effect. In R. J. Moore (Ed.), Handbook of pain and palliative care. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  95. Radley, A. (2009). Works of illness: Narrative, picturing and the social response to serious disease. Ashby-de-la-Zouch, UK: InkerMen Press.Google Scholar
  96. Råheim, M., & Håland, W. (2006). Lived experience of chronic pain and fibromyalgia: Women’s stories from daily life. Qualitative Health Research, 16(6), 741–761.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Remen, R. (1996). Kitchen table wisdom: Stories that heal. New York: Riverhead Books.Google Scholar
  98. Rich, B. A. (2011). The delineation and explication of palliative options of last resort. In R. J. Moore (Ed.), Handbook of pain and palliative care. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  99. Sacks, O. (1985). The man who mistook his wife for a hat and other clinical tales. New York: Simon and Schuster.Google Scholar
  100. Sarbin, T. R. (Ed.). (1986). Narrative psychology: The storied nature of human conduct. New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
  101. Shutty, M. S., Jr., DeGood, D. E., & Tuttle, D. H. (1990). Chronic pain patients’ beliefs about their pain and treatment outcomes. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 71(2), 128–132.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Sontag, S. (1978). Illness as metaphor. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.Google Scholar
  103. Steihaug, S., & Malterud, K. (2008). Stories about bodies: A narrative study on self-understanding and chronic pain. Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care, 26(3), 188–192.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Taylor, J. B. (2006). My stroke of insight: A brain scientist’s personal journey. New York: Viking.Google Scholar
  105. Tedeschi, R. G., & Calhoun, L. (2004). Posttraumatic growth: A new perspective on psychotraumatology. Psychiatric Times, 21(4). Retrieved February 23, 2009, from http://www.psychiatrictimes.com/display/article/10168/54661.
  106. Thernstrom, M. (2011). The pain chronicles: Cures, myths, mysteries, prayers, diaries, brain scans, healing and the science of suffering. New York: Picador.Google Scholar
  107. Todd, K. H. (2001). Influence of ethnicity on emergency department pain management. Emergency Medicine, 13(3), 274–278.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Tompkins, J. P. (Ed.). (1980). Reader-response criticism: From formalism to post-structuralism. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  109. Turner, M. (1996). The literary mind: The origins of thought and language. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  110. Van Middendorp, H., Lumley, M. A., Jacobs, J. W. G., Bijlsma, J. W. J., & Geenen, R. (2010). The effects of anger and sadness on clinical pain reports and experimentally-induced pain thresholds in women with and without fibromyalgia. Arthritis Care & Research (Hoboken), 62(10), 1370–1376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Vegni, E., Mauri, E., & Moja, E. A. (2005). Stories from doctors of patients with pain: A qualitative research on the physicians’ perspective. Supportive Care in Cancer, 13(1), 2–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Von Korff, M., Barlow, W., Cherkin, D., & Deyo, R. A. (1994). Effects of practice style in managing back pain. Annals of Internal Medicine, 121(3), 187–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Wailoo, K. (2006). Stigma, race, and disease in 20th century America. Lancet, 367(9509), 531–533.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Waitzkin, H., & Magaña, H. (1997). The black box in somatization: Unexplained physical symptoms, culture, and narratives of trauma. Social Science & Medicine, 45, 811–825.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Wallis, C. (2005). The right (and wrong) way to treat pain. Time. Retrieved August 11, 2010, from http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1029836-1,00.html.
  116. Werner, A., Isaksen, L. W., & Malterud, K. (2004). “I am not the kind of woman who complains of everything”: Illness stories on self and shame in women with chronic pain. Social Science & Medicine, 59(5), 1035–1045.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. White, M. (2007). Maps of narrative practice. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  118. White, M., &Epson, D. (1990). Narrative means to Therapeutic Ends. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  119. Williams, D. A. (1996). Acute pain management. In R. J. Gatchel & D. C. Turk (Eds.), Psychological approaches to pain management: A practitioner’s handbook (pp. 55–77). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  120. Williams, D. A., & Keefe, F. J. (1991). Pain beliefs and the use of cognitive-behavioral coping strategies. Pain, 46(1), 185–190.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Williams, D. A., & Thorn, B. E. (1989). An empirical assessment of pain beliefs. Pain, 36(3), 351–358.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Winslow, M., Seymour, J., & Clark, D. (2005). Stories of cancer pain: A historical perspective. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 29(1), 22–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Younger, J., Aron, A., Parke, S., Chatterjee, N., & Mackey, S. (2010). Viewing pictures of a romantic partner reduces experimental pain: Involvement of neural reward systems. PLoS ONE, 5(10), e13309. Retrieved October 14, 2010, from doi:  10.1371/journal.pone.0013309.
  124. Zaroff, L. (2009). Learning compassion, learning forgiveness. Hektoen International: A Journal of Medical Humanities, 4, np.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • David B. Morris
    • 1
  1. 1.University of VirginiaCharlottesvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations