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Neuroanatomy of Pain and Pain Pathways

Chapter

Abstract

It may not be quite clear when the study of pain pathways began, but it is almost certain that it gained focus with the reflex theory advanced by Descartes (1664) and was rejuvenated time and again by a number of subsequent theories, such as the specificity theory (Schiff 1858), the sensory interaction theory (Noordenbos 1959) and the gate control theory (Melzack and Wall 1965). More recently, pattern and neuromatrix theories have discounted the specific function assigned to anatomic components of the nervous system (e.g., Berkley and Hubscher 1995a; Melzack 1999; Nafe 1934), particularly when it comes to pain processing; but they have been faced with challenges of their own, not the least of which is translating their theoretical framework into clinical applications. One thing we know for sure is that the perception of pain arises when neural signals originating from the terminals of nociceptors are propagated to second-order neurons in the spinal cord or brainstem, whereupon they are transmitted to specific higher-order brain areas (Price 2000). This chapter highlights recent advances in our knowledge of the pain system including our understanding of nociceptors, of the processing of nociceptive information in the spinal cord, brainstem, thalamus, and cerebral cortex and of descending pathways that modulate nociceptive activity. Some of this information might potentially lead to improvements in patient care.

Keywords

Receptive Field Dorsal Horn Dorsal Column Dorsal Horn Neuron Medial Thalamus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

The author would like to thank Ms. Kirsten Garner for assistance with editing the manuscript. This work was supported by NIH Grants DK077733, DK081628.

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center for Pain Research, Departments of Pediatrics, Internal Medicine (Gastroenterology), Neurobiology and Developmental Sciences, College of MedicineUniversity of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Biomedical Research CenterLittle RockUSA

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