Cosmic Biology pp 253-271 | Cite as

Exotic Cocktails

  • Louis Neal Irwin
  • Dirk Schulze-Makuch
Part of the Springer Praxis Books book series (PRAXIS)


Every 175 years, the outer gas giants line up in a way that makes the shortest and most energetically efficient pathway from Earth to each of them possible. In the mid 1960s, when it was realized that this infrequent window would open up between 1976 and 1978, a grand tour of the outer planets and their satellites was planned for the robotic exploration that came to be known as the Voyager Mission.


Solar System Kuiper Belt Outer Solar System Protostellar Cloud Protostellar Disk 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Louis Neal Irwin
    • 1
  • Dirk Schulze-Makuch
    • 2
  1. 1.The University of Texas at El PasoEl PasoUSA
  2. 2.Washington State UniversityPullmanUSA

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