Transparent Conductive Zinc Oxide and Its Derivatives

  • Klaus Ellmer


Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a ceramic material and was used early in history, for instance as a precursor material for brass manufacturing in old china. ZnO occurs naturally as the mineral zincite (Fig. 7.1a). In 1810 it was discovered by Bruce in Franklin (New Jersey, USA) as red oxide of zinc, in 1845 named as zincite by Haidinger [1]. It can be found at different places on earth: Franklin (New Jersey, USA), Sarawezza (Tuscany, Italy), Tsumeb (Namibia), Olkusz (Poland), Spain, Tasmania and Australia. Most of the natural crystals are small, but freely-formed crystals up to 25 mm were reported, which are exceedingly rare [2].


Carrier Concentration Oxygen Partial Pressure Magnetron Sputtering Zinc Oxide Epitaxial Film 
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Copyright information

© Springer US 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dept. solar fuelsHelmholtz-Zentrum für Materialien und Energie Berlin GmbHBerlinGermany

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