Clostridium difficile-Associated Diseases

  • C. S. Pitchumoni
  • C. S. Pitchumoni
  • C. S. Pitchumoni
  • T. S. Dharmarajan
  • T. S. Dharmarajan
  • T. S. Dharmarajan
  • T. S. Dharmarajan


Clostridium difficile is the most common and important cause of healthcare infection, manifesting as a spectrum of disease ranging from mild diarrhea to toxic megacolon and pseudomembranous colitis. The causative organism, an anaerobic spore-forming bacillus, particularly affects people who have received antibiotics in the recent past; additional predispositions besides older age include immune suppressed states, gastric surgery, tube feeding, and chronic kidney disease. The geriatric population is vulnerable to complications and mortality. A variety of stool assays help in diagnosis. Prevention is the key, with infection control measures and meticulous hand hygiene important. Initial therapy includes use of metronidazole or vancomycin. Resistance and recurrence are handled differently. Newer drugs, monoclonal antibodies, and vaccines may offer better options in future.


Chronic Kidney Disease Inflammatory Bowel Disease Irritable Bowel Syndrome Infection Control Measure Oral Vancomycin 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. S. Pitchumoni
    • 1
  • C. S. Pitchumoni
    • 2
  • C. S. Pitchumoni
    • 3
  • T. S. Dharmarajan
    • 4
  • T. S. Dharmarajan
    • 5
  • T. S. Dharmarajan
    • 6
  • T. S. Dharmarajan
    • 7
  1. 1.Robert Wood Johnson School of Medicine, Drexel University School of MedicinePhiladelphiaUSA
  2. 2.New York Medical CollegeVallhalaUSA
  3. 3.Gastroenterology, Hepatology and NutritionSaint Peter’s University HospitalNew BrunswickUSA
  4. 4.New York Medical CollegeValhallaUSA
  5. 5.Department of MedicineMontefiore Medical Center (North Division)BronxUSA
  6. 6.Division of GeriatricsMontefiore Medical Center (North Division)BronxUSA
  7. 7.Geriatric Medicine Fellowship ProgramMontefiore Medical Center (North Division)BronxUSA

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