Oral Health in Older Adults



Systemic gastrointestinal disorders and oral manifestations are well elucidated in current literature. Many chronic disorders such as cardiovascular disease, stroke, lung disease, and diabetes are associated with oral manifestations. This bidirectional relationship may be a result of inflammatory response to periodontal pathogens. Inflammatory mediators pronounced in the oral cavity may gain access to the circulation resulting in systemic effects. Proper daily oral care, with prevention as the cornerstone, is the most crucial factor in improving oral health in older adults.


Oral Health Periodontal Disease Oral Hygiene Oral Care Natural Tooth 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Bailey R, Gueldner S, Ledikwe J, Smiciklas-Wright H. The oral health of older adults: An interdisciplinary mandate. J Gerontol Nurs. 2005;31:11–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Wilkins EM. The teeth. In: Wilkins EM, editor. Clinical practice of the dental hygienist. 10th ed. Baltimore, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2009. p. 264–80.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Park DS. Challenges of delivering oral health care to older adults. New York State Dent J. 2009;75:36–40.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Wyatt CL, So FH, Williams PM, Mithani A, Zed CM, Yen EH. The development, implementation, utilization and outcomes of a comprehensive dental program for older adults residing in long-term care facilities. J Can Dent Assoc. 2006;72:419–27.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Terpenning M. Geriatric oral health and pneumonia risk. Clin Infect Dis. 2005;40:1807–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Boehm TK, Scannapieco FA. The epidemiology, consequences, and management of periodontal disease in older adults. J Am Dent Assoc. 2007;138(suppl):S26–33.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Petersen PE, Yamamoto T. Improving the oral health of older people: The approach of the WHO Global Health Programme. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2005;33:81–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Haumschild MS, Haumschild RJ. The importance of oral health in long-term care. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2009;10:667–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Griffin SO, Griffin PM, Swann JL, Zlobin N. New coronal caries in older adults: Implications for prevention. J Dent Res. 2005;84:715–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Towle JH. The elderly patient. In: Wilkins EM, editor. Clinical practice of the dental hygienist. 10th ed. Baltimore, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2009. p. 818–31.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Scully C, Ettinger RL. The influence of systemic diseases on oral health care in older adults. J Am Dent Assoc. 2007;138(suppl):S7–14.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Craig RG, Kotanko P, Kamer AR, Levin NW. Periodontal diseases—modifiable source of systemic inflammation for the end-stage renal disease patient on haemodialysis therapy? Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2007;22:312–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hammaker BG. Pharmacologic interventions for controlling the inflammatory cascade in periodontal disease. Access. 2010;24:19–20.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Liang SC, Tan X, Luxenberg DP, et al. Interleukin IL-22 and IL-17 are co-expressed by Th17 cells and cooperatively enhance expression of antimicrobial peptides. J Exp Med. 2006;203:2271–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gaffen SL, Hajishengallis G. A new inflammatory cytokine on the block: Rethinking periodontal disease and the Th1/Th2 paradigm in the context of Th17 cells and IL-17. J Dent Res. 2008;87:817–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kantarci A, Hasturk H, Van Dyke TE. Host-mediated resolution of inflammation in periodontal diseases. Perio. 2006;40:144–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ragalis K. The edentulous patient. In: Wilkins EM, editor. Clinical practice of the dental hygienist. 10th ed. Baltimore, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2009. p. 832–44.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sabine O, Geerts VL, Charpentier J, et al. Further evidence of the association between periodontal conditions and coronary artery disease. J Periodontol. 2004;31:402–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mergulha OP, Magro F, Pereira P, et al. Gingival hyperplasia as a first manifestation of Crohn’s disease. Dig Dis Sci. 2005;50:1946–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    DiFede O, Di Liberto C, Occhipinti G, et al. Oral manifestations in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease: a single-center case-control study. J Oral Pathol Med. 2008;37:336–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Iamaroon A, Chaimano S, Linpisarn S, Pongsiriwet S, Phornphutkul K. Detection of Helicobacter pylori in recent apthous ulceration by nested PCR. J Oral Sci. 2003;45:107–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ship JA, Mohammad AR. Geriatric oral medicine. htpp://www.geriatricoralhealth.org/topics/topic02/default.aspx. Accessed 7 Aug 2010.
  23. 23.
    Brosky ME. The role of saliva in oral health: Strategies for prevention and management of xerostomia. J Support Oncol. 2007;5:215–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Havales EB. Applied pharmacology for the dental hygienist. 6th ed. Maryland Heights, MO: Mosby Elsevier; 2011.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Weiner RC, Wu B, Crout R, et al. Hyposalivation and xerostomia in dentate older adults. J Am Dent Assoc. 2010;141:279–84.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ciancio SG. Medications’ impact on oral health. J Am Dent Assoc. 2004;135:1440–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Cartsos VM, Zhu S, Zavras AI. Bisphosphonate use and the risk of adverse jaw outcomes: a medical claims study of 714,217 people. J Am Dent Assoc. 2008;139(12):14–5.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Skrepnek GH, Seal B, Tangirala M, et al. Adverse events and intravenous versus oral bisphosphonate use in patients with osteoporosis and cancer in the U.S. Gen Dent. 2010;58:484–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Haumschild MS, Haumschild RJ. Postmenopausal females and the link between oral bisphosphonates and osteonecrosis of the jaw: A clinical review. J Am Ac Nurse Prac. 2010;22:534–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Developing Healthy People 2020. Updated 30 Oct 2009. http://www.healthypeople.gov/hp2020/Objectives/TopicArea.aspx?id=38&TopicArea=Oral+Health. Accessed 19 Aug 2010.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Health SciencesSt. Petersburg CollegeSeminoleUSA
  2. 2.Department of Dental HygieneBroward CollegeDavieUSA

Personalised recommendations