Advertisement

Tumors of the Liver

  • Satheesh Nair
  • Jihad O. Arteh
Chapter

Abstract

The increasing use of imaging modalities has led to a dramatic rise in the detection of liver lesions, making it crucial to distinguish benign from malignant lesions. The distinction is important in the geriatric patients who pose a higher risk for malignancy and may undergo unnecessary interventions. Benign liver tumors affect approximately 20% of the population, the two most common being hemangiomas and focal nodular hyperplasia. Other benign tumors include hepatocellular adenoma, regenerative nodular hyperplasia, and simple cysts, as well as cysts associated with polycystic liver disease. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography are the most useful diagnostic tests. Most of these tumors have a benign course, with no intervention necessary. Malignant tumors include hepatocellular carcinoma, intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, and liver metastasis. Malignant tumors have characteristic appearance on dynamic computed tomography and MRI. Liver biopsy is an option if diagnosis is uncertain.

Keywords

Liver Transplantation Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease Choledochal Cyst Focal Nodular Hyperplasia Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Boutros C. Management of an incidental liver mass. Surg Clin North Am. 2010;90(4):699–718.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Buell JF. Management of benign hepatic tumors. Surg Clin North Am. 2010;90(4):719–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Janssen MJ, Waanders E, Woudenberg J, et al. Congenital disorders of glycosylation in hepatology: the example of polycystic liver disease. J Hepatol. 2010;52(3):432–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Drenth JP, Chrispijn M, Nagorney DM, et al. Medical and surgical treatment options for polycystic liver disease. Hepatology. 2010;52(6):2223–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    van Keimpema L, Nevens F, Vanslembrouck R, et al. Lanreotide reduces the volume of polycystic liver: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Gastroenterology. 2009;137:1661–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hogan MC, Masyuk TV, Page LJ, et al. Randomized clinical trial of long-acting somatostatin for autosomal dominant polycystic kidney and liver disease. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2010;21:1052–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Poultsides GA. Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. Surg Clin North Am. 2010;90(4):817–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Nathan H, Aloia TA, Vauthey JN, et al. A proposed staging system for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. Ann Surg Oncol. 2009;16(1):14–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ahmadzadehfar H, Biersack HJ, et al. Radioembolization of liver tumors with yttrium-90 microspheres. Semin Nucl Med. 2010;40:105–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Valle J, Wasan H, Palmer DH, et al. Cisplatin plus gemcitabine versus gemcitabine for biliary tract cancer. N Engl J Med. 2010;362:1273–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kanwal F, Hoang T, Kramer JR, et al. Increasing prevalence of HCC and cirrhosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Gastroenterology. 2011;140(4):1182–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Yang JD, Harmsen WS, Slettedahl SW, et al. Factors that affect risk for hepatocellular carcinoma and effects of surveillance. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2011;9(7):617–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Davila JA, Henderson L, Kramer JR, et al. Utilization of surveillance for hepatocellular carcinoma among hepatitis C virus-infected veterans in the United States. Ann Intern Med. 2011;154(2):85–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bruix J, Sherman M. AASLD practice guidelines update 2011. Hepatoloy. 2011;53;1021–23—full website of AASLD practice guidelines. http://www.aasld.org/practiceguidelines/Pages/NewUpdatedGuidelines.aspx.
  15. 15.
    Mazzaferro V, Regalia E, Doci R, et al. Liver transplantation for the treatment of small hepatocellular carcinomas in patients with cirrhosis. N Engl J Med. 1996;334(11):693–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Yao FY, Kerlan Jr RK, Hirose R, et al. Excellent outcome following down-staging of hepatocellular carcinoma prior to liver transplantation: an intention-to-treat analysis. Hepatology. 2008;48(3):819–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Nanashima A, Abo T, Nonaka T, et al. Prognosis of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma after hepatic resection: are elderly patients suitable for surgery? J Surg Oncol. 2011;104(3):284–91. doi: 10.1002/jso.21932.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Llovet JM, Ricci S, Mazzaferro V, et al. SHARP Investigators Study Group. Sorafenib in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. N Engl J Med. 2008;359(4):378–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Tanaka S, Arii S. Molecular targeted therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma in the current and potential next strategies. J Gastroenterol. 2011;46(3):289–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sapisochin G, Fidelman N, Roberts JP, et al. Mixed hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma (HCC-CC) and intra-hepatic cholangiocarcinoma (I-CC) in patients transplanted for hepatocellular carcinoma. Liver Transpl. 2011;17(8):934–42. doi: 10.1002/lt.22307.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Gallagher DJ, Kemeny N. Metastatic colorectal cancer: from improved survival to potential cure. Oncology. 2010;78(3–4):237–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Rea DJ, Rosen CB, Nagorney DM, et al. Transplantation for cholangiocarcinoma: when and for whom? Surg Oncol Clin N Am. 2009;18(2):325–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Yao JC, Shah MH, Ito T, et al. Everolimus for advanced pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. N Engl J Med. 2011;364(6):514–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Raymond E, Dahan L, Raoul JL, et al. Sunitinib malate for the treatment of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. N Engl J Med. 2011;364(6):501–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Transplant DepartmentMethodist University HospitalMemphisUSA
  2. 2.Department of Internal MedicineUniversity of Tennessee Health Science CenterMemphisUSA

Personalised recommendations