Iron, Copper, and Zinc

  • T. S. Dharmarajan
  • T. S. Dharmarajan
  • T. S. Dharmarajan
  • T. S. Dharmarajan
  • Srinivas Guptha Gunturu
  • C. S. Pitchumoni
  • C. S. Pitchumoni
  • C. S. Pitchumoni


Iron, copper, and zinc are essential micronutrients responsible for various physiological functions. In this chapter, we are going to discuss epidemiology of iron deficiency, physiology of iron absorption, role of hepcidin, iron content in food, bioavailability of iron, symptoms and signs of iron deficiency, and its treatment with oral and parenteral formulations. Later, we are discussing copper and zinc functions, daily requirements, absorption, factors affecting bioavailability, iron–copper–zinc interactions, and symptoms and signs of their deficiencies.


Celiac Disease Iron Deficiency Copper Deficiency Oral Iron Iron Sucrose 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. S. Dharmarajan
    • 1
  • T. S. Dharmarajan
    • 2
  • T. S. Dharmarajan
    • 3
  • T. S. Dharmarajan
    • 4
  • Srinivas Guptha Gunturu
    • 5
  • C. S. Pitchumoni
    • 6
  • C. S. Pitchumoni
    • 1
  • C. S. Pitchumoni
    • 7
  1. 1.New York Medical CollegeValhallaUSA
  2. 2.Department of MedicineMontefiore Medical Center (North Division)BronxUSA
  3. 3.Division of GeriatricsMontefiore Medical Center (North Division)BronxUSA
  4. 4.Geriatric Medicine Fellowship ProgramMontefiore Medical Center (North Division)BronxUSA
  5. 5.Department of MedicineMontefiore Medical Center (North Division)BronxUSA
  6. 6.Robert Wood Johnson School of Medicine, Drexel University School of MedicinePhiladelphiaUSA
  7. 7.Gastroenterology, Hepatology and NutritionSaint Peter’s University HospitalNew BrunswickUSA

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