• Robert S. Holzman
  • Thomas J. Mancuso
  • Navil F. Sethna
  • James A. DiNardo


A 14½-year-old female with a diagnosis of Budd–Chiari syndrome presents for liver transplantation. She has developed decreasing mental status, hyponatremia, and a reduction in urine output.


Liver Failure Hepatic Encephalopathy Hepatorenal Syndrome Hepatic Artery Thrombosis Hepatopulmonary Syndrome 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Rodriguez-Roisin R, Krowka MJ (2008) Hepatopulmonary syndrome–a liver-induced lung vascular disorder. N Engl J Med 358:2378–2387PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Tumgor G, Arikan C, Yuksekkaya HA et al (2008) Childhood cirrhosis, hepatopulmonary syndrome and liver transplantation. Pediatr Transplant 12:353–357PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Palma DT, Philips GM, Arguedas MR et al (2008) Oxygen desaturation during sleep in hepatopulmonary syndrome. Hepatology 47:1257–1263PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Alqahtani SA, Fouad TR, Lee SS (2008) Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy. Semin Liver Dis 28:59–69PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Biais M, Nouette-Gaulain K, Cottenceau V et al (2008) Cardiac output measurement in patients undergoing liver transplantation: pulmonary artery catheter versus uncalibrated arterial pressure waveform analysis. Anesth Analg 106:1480–1486, table of contentsPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Morgan MY, Blei A, Grungreiff K et al (2007) The treatment of hepatic encephalopathy. Metab Brain Dis 22:389–405PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Als-Nielsen B, Gluud LL, Gluud C (2004) Benzodiazepine receptor antagonists for hepatic encephalopathy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev:CD002798Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Als-Nielsen B, Gluud LL, Gluud C (2004) Nonabsorbable disaccharides for hepatic encephalopathy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev:CD003044Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Als-Nielsen B, Gluud LL, Gluud C (2004) Dopaminergic agonists for hepatic encephalopathy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev:CD003047Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Blei AT (2007) Brain edema in acute liver failure: can it be prevented? Can it be treated? J Hepatol 46:564–569PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Arroyo V, Fernandez J, Gines P (2008) Pathogenesis and treatment of hepatorenal syndrome. Semin Liver Dis 28:81–95PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Leiva JG, Salgado JM, Estradas J et al (2007) Pathophysiology of ascites and dilutional hyponatremia: contemporary use of aquaretic agents. Ann Hepatol 6:214–221PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Blei AT (2007) Portal hypertension and its complications. Curr Opin Gastroenterol 23:275–282PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bennett J, Bromley P (2006) Perioperative issues in pediatric liver transplantation. Int Anesthesiol Clin 44:125–147PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Yudkowitz FS, Chietero M (2005) Anesthetic issues in pediatric liver transplantation. Pediatr Transplant 9:666–672PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Fumagalli R, Ingelmo P, Sperti LR (2006) Postoperative sedation and analgesia after pediatric liver transplantation. Transplant Proc 38:841–843PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Mahle WT (2008) Heart transplantation: Literature review 2006–2007. Pediatr Transplant 16:630–639CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Mahle WT (2008) Cardiac retransplantation in children. Pediatr Transplant 12:274–280PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Giessing M, Muller D, Winkelmann B et al (2007) Kidney transplantation in children and adolescents. Transplant Proc 39:2197–2201PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Della Rocca G, Costa MG, Bruno K et al (2001) Pediatric renal transplantation: anesthesia and perioperative complications. Pediatr Surg Int 17:175–179PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Coupe N, O’Brien M, Gibson P, de Lima J (2005) Anesthesia for pediatric renal transplantation with and without epidural analgesia–a review of 7 years experience. Paediatr Anaesth 15:220–228PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert S. Holzman
    • 1
  • Thomas J. Mancuso
    • 1
  • Navil F. Sethna
    • 1
  • James A. DiNardo
    • 1
  1. 1.Children’s Hospital BostonHarvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations