Ethical Issues

  • Lawrence M. Friedman
  • Curt D. Furberg
  • David L. DeMets


People have debated the ethics of clinical trials for as long as trials have been conducted. The arguments have changed over the years and perhaps become more sophisticated, but many of them involve issues such as the physician’s obligations to the individual patient versus societal good, clinical equipoise, study design considerations such as randomization and the choice of control group, including use of placebo, informed consent, conduct of trials in underdeveloped areas, conflict of interest, participant confidentiality and sharing of data and specimens, and publication bias.


Beta Carotene Clinical Equipoise Cardiac Arrhythmia Suppression Trial Early Phase Study Surrogate Consent 
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Copyright information

© Springer New York 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lawrence M. Friedman
    • 1
  • Curt D. Furberg
    • 2
  • David L. DeMets
    • 3
  1. 1.BethesdaUSA
  2. 2.School of MedicineWake Forest UniversityWinston-SalemUSA
  3. 3.Department of Biostatistics & Medical InformaticsUniversity of WisconsinMadisonUSA

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