Advertisement

Colorectal Cancer: Screening

  • Jason F. Hall
  • Thomas E. Read
Chapter

Abstract

Cancer of the colon and rectum is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in the USA. In 2009, it was estimated that 147,000 Americans will be diagnosed with colorectal cancer and 50,000 will die from this disease.1 Without undergoing screening or preventive action, approximately 1 in every 17 people in this country will develop colorectal cancer at some point in life. There is clear evidence that colorectal adenocarcinoma can be prevented by detecting and removing adenomatous polyps and that detecting early stage cancers reduces mortality from the disease.2–9 Both polyps and early stage cancers are usually asymptomatic; cancers that have grown large enough to cause symptoms have a much worse prognosis. This contrast highlights the need for screening in asymptomatic persons.

Keywords

Familial Adenomatous Polyposis Lynch Syndrome Fecal Occult Blood Testing Adenomatous Polyp Compute Tomography Colonography 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Jemal A, Siegel R, Ward E, Hao Y, Xu J, Thun MJ. Cancer statistics, 2009. CA Cancer J Clin. 2009;59:225–49.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Newcomb P, Norfleet R, Storer B, Surawicz T, Marcus P. Screening sigmoidoscopy and colorectal cancer mortality. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1992;84:1572–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kronborg O, Fenger C, Olsen J, Jorgensen OD, Sondergaard O. Randomised study of screening for colorectal cancer with faecal-occult-blood test. Lancet. 1996;348:1467–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Winawer SJ, Flehinger BJ, Schottenfeld D, Miller DG. Screening for colorectal cancer with fecal occult blood testing and sigmoidoscopy. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1993;85:1311–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Winawer SJ, Zauber AG, Ho MN, et al. Prevention of colorectal cancer by colonoscopic polypectomy. The National Polyp Study Workgroup. N Engl J Med. 1993;329:1977–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Muller AD, Sonnenberg A. Protection by endoscopy against death from colorectal cancer. A case-control study among veterans. Arch Intern Med. 1995;155:1741–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Levin B, Lieberman DA, McFarland B, et al. Screening and surveillance for the early detection of colorectal cancer and adenomatous polyps, 2008: a joint guideline from the American Cancer Society, the US Multi-Society Task Force on Colorectal Cancer, and the American College of Radiology. Gastroenterology. 2008;134:1570–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Whitlock EP, Lin JS, Liles E, Beil TL, Fu R. Screening for colorectal cancer: a targeted, updated systematic review for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern Med. 2008;149:638–58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for colorectal cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2008;149:627–37.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Frame PS, Berg AO, Woolf S. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force: highlights of the 1996 report. Am Fam Physician. 1997;55:567–76. 581–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Levin B, Bond JH. Colorectal cancer screening: recommendations of the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. American Gastroenterological Association. Gastroenterology. 1996;111:1381–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Laken SJ, Petersen GM, Gruber SB, et al. Familial colorectal cancer in Ashkenazim due to a hypermutable tract in APC. Nat Genet. 1997;17:79–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Winawer SJ, Fletcher RH, Miller L, et al. Colorectal cancer screening: clinical guidelines and rationale. Gastroenterology. 1997;112:594–642.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Byers T, Levin B, Rothenberger D, Dodd GD, Smith RA. American Cancer Society guidelines for screening and surveillance for early detection of colorectal polyps and cancer: update 1997. American Cancer Society Detection and Treatment Advisory Group on Colorectal Cancer. CA Cancer J Clin. 1997;47:154–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Simmang CL, Senatore P, Lowry A, et al. Practice parameters for detection of colorectal neoplasms. The Standards Committee, The American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons. Dis Colon Rectum. 1999;42:1123–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ko C, Hyman NH. Practice parameter for the detection of colorectal neoplasms: an interim report (revised). Dis Colon Rectum. 2006;49:299–301.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Levin B, Lieberman DA, McFarland B, et al. Screening and surveillance for the early detection of colorectal cancer and adenomatous polyps, 2008: a joint guideline from the American Cancer Society, the US Multi-Society Task Force on Colorectal Cancer, and the American College of Radiology. CA Cancer J Clin. 2008;58:130–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Rex DK, Johnson DA, Anderson JC, Schoenfeld PS, Burke CA, Inadomi JM. American College of Gastroenterology guidelines for colorectal cancer screening 2009 [corrected]. Am J Gastroenterol. 2009;104:739–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Inadomi J, Kuhn L, Vijan S, et al. Adherence to competing colorectal cancer screening strategies. Am J Gastroenterol. 2005;100:S387–8.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Rockey DC, Koch J, Cello JP, Sanders LL, McQuaid K. Relative frequency of upper gastrointestinal and colonic lesions in patients with positive fecal occult-blood tests. N Engl J Med. 1998;339:153–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hardcastle JD, Chamberlain JO, Robinson MH, et al. Randomised controlled trial of faecal-occult-blood screening for colorectal cancer. Lancet. 1996;348:1472–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Mandel JS, Bond JH, Church TR, et al. Reducing mortality from colorectal cancer by screening for fecal occult blood. Minnesota Colon Cancer Control Study. N Engl J Med. 1993;328:1365–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hewitson P, Glasziou P, Irwig L, Towler B, Watson E. Screening for colorectal cancer using the faecal occult blood test, Hemoccult. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007. CD001216.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Jorgensen OD, Kronborg O, Fenger C. A randomised study of screening for colorectal cancer using faecal occult blood testing: results after 13 years and seven biennial screening rounds. Gut. 2002;50:29–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Anderson LM, May DS. Has the use of cervical, breast, and colorectal cancer screening increased in the United States? Am J Public Health. 1995;85:840–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ransohoff DF, Lang CA. Screening for colorectal cancer with the fecal occult blood test: a background paper. American College of Physicians. Ann Intern Med. 1997;126:811–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Nakama H, Fattah AS, Zhang B, Kamijo N. Digital rectal examination sampling of stool is less predictive of significant colorectal pathology than stool passed spontaneously. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2000;12:1235–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Colorectal Cancer Screening. Clinical practice guidelines in oncology. J Natl Compr Canc Netw. 2003;1:72–93.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Traverso G, Shuber A, Levin B, et al. Detection of APC mutations in fecal DNA from patients with colorectal tumors. N Engl J Med. 2002;346:311–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Limburg PJ, Devens ME, Harrington JJ, Diehl NN, Mahoney DW, Ahlquist DA. Prospective evaluation of fecal calprotectin as a screening biomarker for colorectal neoplasia. Am J Gastroenterol. 2003;98:2299–305.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    An SW, Kim NK, Chung HC. Genetic and epigenetic marker-based DNA test of stool is a promising approach for colorectal cancer screening. Yonsei Med J. 2009;50:331–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Imperiale TF, Ransohoff DF, Itzkowitz SH, Turnbull BA, Ross ME. Fecal DNA versus fecal occult blood for colorectal-cancer screening in an average-risk population. N Engl J Med. 2004;351:2704–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Ahlquist DA, Sargent DJ, Loprinzi CL, et al. Stool DNA and occult blood testing for screen detection of colorectal neoplasia. Ann Intern Med. 2008;149:441–50. W481.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Read TE, Read JD, Butterly LF. Importance of adenomas 5 mm or less in diameter that are detected by sigmoidoscopy. N Engl J Med. 1997;336:8–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Selby J, Friedman G, Quesenberry C, Weiss N. A case-control study of screening sigmoidoscopy and mortality from colorectal cancer. N Engl J Med. 1992;326:653–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Thiis-Evensen E, Hoff GS, Sauar J, Langmark F, Majak BM, Vatn MH. Population-based surveillance by colonoscopy: effect on the incidence of colorectal cancer. Telemark Polyp Study I. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1999;34:414–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Thiis-Evensen E, Hoff GS, Sauar J, Majak BM, Vatn MH. The effect of attending a flexible sigmoidoscopic screening program on the prevalence of colorectal adenomas at 13-year follow-up. Am J Gastroenterol. 2001;96:1901–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Pinsky PF, Schoen RE, Weissfeld JL, Kramer B, Hayes RB, Yokochi L. Variability in flexible sigmoidoscopy performance among examiners in a screening trial. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2005;3:792–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Atkin WS, Edwards R, Wardle J, et al. Design of a multicentre randomised trial to evaluate flexible sigmoidoscopy in colorectal cancer screening. J Med Screen. 2001;8:137–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Adams C, Cardwell C, Cook C, Edwards R, Atkin WS, Morton DG. Effect of hysterectomy status on polyp detection rates at screening flexible sigmoidoscopy. Gastrointest Endosc. 2003;57:848–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Hoff G, Grotmol T, Skovlund E, Bretthauer M. Risk of colorectal cancer seven years after flexible sigmoidoscopy screening: randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2009;338:b1846.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Lieberman D, Smith F. Screening for colon malignancy with colonoscopy. Am J Gastroenterol. 1991;86:946–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Achkar E, Carey W. Small polyps found during fiberoptic sigmoidoscopy in asymptomatic patients. Ann Intern Med. 1988;109:880–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Brady PG, Straker RJ, McClave SA, Nord HJ, Pinkas M, Robinson BE. Are hyperplastic rectosigmoid polyps associated with an increased risk of proximal colonic neoplasms? Gastrointest Endosc. 1993;39:481–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Rex DK, Smith JJ, Ulbright TM, Lehman GA. Distal colonic hyperplastic polyps do not predict proximal adenomas in asymptomatic average-risk subjects. Gastroenterology. 1992;102:317–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Mehran A, Jaffe P, Efron J, Vernavay A, Liberman A. Screening colonoscopy in the asymptomatic 50- to 59-year-old ­population. Surg Endosc. 2003;17:1974–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Lieberman DA, Weiss DG, Bond JH, Ahnen DJ, Garewal H, Chejfec G. Use of colonoscopy to screen asymptomatic adults for colorectal cancer. Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study Group 380. N Engl J Med. 2000;343:162–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Imperiale TF, Wagner DR, Lin CY, Larkin GN, Rogge JD, Ransohoff DF. Risk of advanced proximal neoplasms in asymptomatic adults according to the distal colorectal findings. N Engl J Med. 2000;343:169–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Steine S, Stordahl A, Lunde OC, Loken K, Laerum E. Double-contrast barium enema versus colonoscopy in the diagnosis of neoplastic disorders: aspects of decision-making in general practice. Fam Pract. 1993;10:288–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Hixson LJ, Fennerty MB, Sampliner RE, McGee D, Garewal H. Prospective study of the frequency and size distribution of polyps missed by colonoscopy. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1990;82:1769–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Hixson LJ, Fennerty MB, Sampliner RE, Garewal HS. Prospective blinded trial of the colonoscopic miss-rate of large colorectal polyps. Gastrointest Endosc. 1991;37:125–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Fork FT. Double contrast enema and colonoscopy in polyp detection. Gut. 1981;22:971–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Fenlon HM, Nunes DP, Clarke PD, Ferrucci JT. Colorectal neoplasm detection using virtual colonoscopy: a feasibility study. Gut. 1998;43:806–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Rex DK. CT and MR colography (virtual colonoscopy): status report. J Clin Gastroenterol. 1998;27:199–203.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Akerkar GA, Yee J, Hung R, McQuaid K. Patient experience and preferences toward colon cancer screening: a comparison of virtual colonoscopy and conventional colonoscopy. Gastrointest Endosc. 2001;54:310–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Fenlon HM, Nunes DP, Schroy 3rd PC, Barish MA, Clarke PD, Ferrucci JT. A comparison of virtual and conventional colonoscopy for the detection of colorectal polyps. N Engl J Med. 1999;341:1496–503.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Johnson CD, Chen MH, Toledano AY, et al. Accuracy of CT colonography for detection of large adenomas and cancers. N Engl J Med. 2008;359:1207–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Gluecker TM, Johnson CD, Harmsen WS, et al. Colorectal cancer screening with CT colonography, colonoscopy, and double-contrast barium enema examination: prospective assessment of patient perceptions and preferences. Radiology. 2003;227:378–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Lieberman D, Moravec M, Holub J, Michaels L, Eisen G. Polyp size and advanced histology in patients undergoing colonoscopy screening: implications for CT colonography. Gastroenterology. 2008;135:1100–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Rex DK, Imperiale TF. CT colonography versus colonoscopy for the detection of advanced neoplasia. N Engl J Med. 2008;358:88. author reply 90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Cotton PB, Durkalski VL, Pineau BC, et al. Computed tomographic colonography (virtual colonoscopy): a multicenter comparison with standard colonoscopy for detection of colorectal neoplasia. JAMA. 2004;291:1713–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Rockey DC, Paulson E, Niedzwiecki D, et al. Analysis of air contrast barium enema, computed tomographic colonography, and colonoscopy: prospective comparison. Lancet. 2005;365:305–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Butterly LF, Chase MP, Pohl H, Fiarman GS. Prevalence of clinically important histology in small adenomas. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006;4:343–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Wagner JL. Cost-effectiveness of screening for common cancers. Cancer Metastasis Rev. 1997;16:281–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Wagner J, The Congressional Office of Technology Assessment. JAMA. 1990;264:2732.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Sheldon GF. Professionalism, managed care and the human rights movement. Bull Am Coll Surg. 1998;83:13–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Brooks DD, Winawer SJ, Rex DK, et al. Colonoscopy surveillance after polypectomy and colorectal cancer resection. Am Fam Physician. 2008;77:995–1002.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Winawer SJ, Zauber AG, Gerdes H, et al. Risk of colorectal cancer in the families of patients with adenomatous polyps. National Polyp Study Workgroup. N Engl J Med. 1996;334:82–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Fuchs CS, Giovannucci EL, Colditz GA, Hunter DJ, Speizer FE, Willett WC. A prospective study of family history and the risk of colorectal cancer. N Engl J Med. 1994;331:1669–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Frayling IM, Beck NE, Ilyas M, et al. The APC variants I1307K and E1317Q are associated with colorectal tumors, but not always with a family history. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1998;95:10722–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Gryfe R, Di NN, Lal G, Gallinger S, Redston M. Inherited colorectal polyposis and cancer risk of the APC I1307K polymorphism. Am J Hum Genet. 1999;64:378–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Prior TW, Chadwick RB, Papp AC, et al. The I1307K polymorphism of the APC gene in colorectal cancer. Gastroenterology. 1999;116:58–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Rozen P, Shomrat R, Strul H, et al. Prevalence of the I1307K APC gene variant in Israeli Jews of differing ethnic origin and risk for colorectal cancer. Gastroenterology. 1999;116:54–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Woodage T, King SM, Wacholder S, et al. The APCI1307K allele and cancer risk in a community-based study of Ashkenazi Jews. Nat Genet. 1998;20:62–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Gryfe R, Di NN, Gallinger S, Redston M. Somatic instability of the APC I1307K allele in colorectal neoplasia. Cancer Res. 1998;58:4040–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Burke W, Petersen G, Lynch P, et al. Recommendations for follow-up care of individuals with an inherited predisposition to cancer. I. Hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer. Cancer Genetics Studies Consortium. JAMA. 1997;277:915–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Lynch HT, Smyrk T. Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (Lynch syndrome). An updated review. Cancer. 1996;78:1149–67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Myrhoj T, Bisgaard ML, Bernstein I, Svendsen LB, Sondergaard JO, Bulow S. Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer: clinical features and survival. Results from the Danish HNPCC register. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1997;32:572–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Rodriguez-Bigas MA, Boland CR, Hamilton SR, et al. A National Cancer Institute workshop on hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer syndrome: meeting highlights and Bethesda guidelines. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1997;89:1758–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Box JC, Rodriguez-Bigas MA, Weber TK, Petrelli NJ. Clinical implications of multiple colorectal carcinomas in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal carcinoma. Dis Colon Rectum. 1999;42:717–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Fitzgibbons Jr RJ, Lynch HT, Stanislav GV, et al. Recognition and treatment of patients with hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer (Lynch syndromes I and II). Ann Surg. 1987;206:289–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Watson P, Lin KM, Rodriguez-Bigas MA, et al. Colorectal carcinoma survival among hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal carcinoma family members. Cancer. 1998;83:259–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Park JG, Vasen HF, Park KJ, et al. Suspected hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer: International Collaborative Group on Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colorectal Cancer (ICG-HNPCC) criteria and results of genetic diagnosis. Dis Colon Rectum. 1999;42:710–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Umar A, Boland CR, Terdiman JP, et al. Revised Bethesda Guidelines for hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (Lynch syndrome) and microsatellite instability. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2004;96:261–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Samowitz WS, Slattery ML, Kerber RA. Microsatellite instability in human colonic cancer is not a useful clinical indicator of familial colorectal cancer. Gastroenterology. 1995;109:1765–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    East JE, Suzuki N, Stavrinidis M, Guenther T, Thomas HJ, Saunders BP. Narrow band imaging for colonoscopic surveillance in hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer. Gut. 2008;57:65–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Lecomte T, Cellier C, Meatchi T, et al. Chromoendoscopic colonoscopy for detecting preneoplastic lesions in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer syndrome. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2005;3:897–902.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Stoffel EM, Turgeon DK, Stockwell DH, et al. Chromoendoscopy detects more adenomas than colonoscopy using intensive inspection without dye spraying. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2008;1:507–13.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Stoffel EM, Turgeon DK, Stockwell DH, et al. Missed adenomas during colonoscopic surveillance in individuals with Lynch Syndrome (hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer). Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2008;1:470–5.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Leppert M, Dobbs M, Scambler P, et al. The gene for familial polyposis coli maps to the long arm of chromosome 5. Science. 1987;238:1411–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Arvanitis ML, Jagelman DG, Fazio VW, Lavery IC, McGannon E. Mortality in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis. Dis Colon Rectum. 1990;33:639–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Vasen HF, Griffioen G, Offerhaus GJ, et al. The value of screening and central registration of families with familial adenomatous polyposis. A study of 82 families in The Netherlands. Dis Colon Rectum. 1990;33:227–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Rustin RB, Jagelman DG, McGannon E, Fazio VW, Lavery IC, Weakley FL. Spontaneous mutation in familial adenomatous polyposis. Dis Colon Rectum. 1990;33:52–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Spirio L, Olschwang S, Groden J, et al. Alleles of the APC gene: an attenuated form of familial polyposis. Cell. 1993;75:951–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Giardiello FM, Brensinger JD, Petersen GM, et al. The use and interpretation of commercial APC gene testing for familial adenomatous polyposis. N Engl J Med. 1997;336:823–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Cromwell DM, Moore RD, Brensinger JD, Petersen GM, Bass EB, Giardiello FM. Cost analysis of alternative approaches to colorectal screening in familial adenomatous polyposis. Gastroenterology. 1998;114:893–901.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Winawer SJ. Screening of colorectal cancer. Surg Oncol Clin N Am. 2005;14:699–722.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Marcello PW, Asbun HJ, Veidenheimer MC, et al. Gastroduodenal polyps in familial adenomatous polyposis. Surg Endosc. 1996;10:418–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Ahmadi AA, Polyak S. Endoscopy/surveillance in inflammatory bowel disease. Surg Clin North Am. 2007;87:743–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Provenzale D, Kowdley KV, Arora S, Wong JB. Prophylactic colectomy or surveillance for chronic ulcerative colitis? A decision analysis. Gastroenterology. 1995;109:1188–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Lennard JJ, Melville DM, Morson BC, Ritchie JK, Williams CB. Precancer and cancer in extensive ulcerative colitis: findings among 401 patients over 22 years. Gut. 1990;31:800–6.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Shapiro JA, Seeff LC, Thompson TD, Nadel MR, Klabunde CN, Vernon SW. Colorectal cancer test use from the 2005 National Health Interview Survey. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008;17:1623–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Doubeni CA, Laiyemo AO, Reed G, Field TS, Fletcher RH. Socioeconomic and racial patterns of colorectal cancer screening among Medicare enrollees in 2000 to 2005. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009;18:2170–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jason F. Hall
    • 1
    • 2
  • Thomas E. Read
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Colon and Rectal SurgeryTufts University School of MedicineBostonUSA
  2. 2.Lahey ClinicBurlingtonUSA
  3. 3.Department of Colon and Rectal Surgery, Program Director, Colon and Rectal Surgery ResidencyTufts University School of MedicineBostonUSA
  4. 4.Lahey Clinic Medical CenterBurlingtonUSA

Personalised recommendations