Other Benign Colorectal Disorders

  • Justin A. Maykel
  • Scott R. Steele


Multiple different disease processes may affect the colon and rectum, each challenging in varying aspects for both patient and physician alike. Though considered benign, they encompass a wide spectrum of pathology ranging from infectious, radiation-induced, and vascular etiologies to more obscure and difficult to diagnose conditions such as collagen vascular and microscopic colitides. Confounding the situation, patients may present with a variety of clinical symptoms spanning from chronic, nonspecific diarrhea, vague abdominal pain, and low-grade fevers, to florid sepsis. As such, clinicians caring for these patients must be aware of not only the many subtleties associated with each condition, but also possess a sound, and often stepwise, approach for evaluation and treatment. In this chapter, we review the extensive gamut encompassing these less common conditions, highlighting the critical diagnostic and therapeutic strategies to maximize patient outcomes.


Adult Worm Ischemic Colitis Pseudomembranous Colitis Toxic Megacolon Microscopic Colitis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



This chapter was authored by Walter E. Longo and Gregory C. Oliver in the previous edition of this textbook.


  1. 1.
    Daly JS, Porter KA, Chong FK, et al. Disseminated, non-meningeal gastrointestinal infection in an HIV-negative patient. Am J Gastroenterol. 1990;85:1421–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Glandt M, Adachi JA, Mathewson JJ, et al. Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli as a cause of traveler’s diarrhea: clinical response to ciprofloxacin. Clin Infect Dis. 1999;29:335–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ashida H, Ogawa M. Shigella infection of intestinal epithelium and circumvention of the host innate defense system. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2009;337:231–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ina K, Kusugami K, Ohta M. Bacterial hemorrhagic enterocolitis. J Gastroenterol. 2003;38:111–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Goldsweig CD, Pacheco PA. Infectious colitis excluding E. coli O 157:H7 and C. difficile. Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 2001;30:709–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bennish ML. Potentially lethal complications of shigellosis. Rev Infect Dis. 1991;13 Suppl 4:S319–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bennish ML, Azad AK, Yousefzadeh D. Intestinal obstruction during shigellosis: incidence, clinical features, risk factors and outcome. Gastroenterology. 1991;101:626–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Christopher PR, David KV, John SM, Sankarapandian V. Antibiotic therapy for Shigella dysentery. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;1:CD006784.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Smith T. The hog-cholera group of bacteria. US Bur Anim Ind Bull. 1894;6:6–40.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Preliminary FoodNet data on the incidence of infection with pathogens transmitted commonly through food – 10 States, United States, 2005. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2006;55:392.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Voetsch AC, Van Gilder TJ, Angulo FJ, et al. FoodNet estimate of the burden of illness caused by nontyphoidal Salmonella infections in the United States. Clin Infect Dis. 2004;38 Suppl 3:S127–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Infectious disease. In: Beers MH, Berkow R, editors. The Merck Manual. 17th ed. White House Station: Merck Research Laboratories; 1999. p. 1147–209.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Mandal BK, Brennand J. Bacteraemia in salmonellosis: a 15 year retrospective study from a regional infectious diseases unit. BMJ. 1988;297:1242–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Cohen JI, Bartlett JA, Corey GR. Extra-intestinal manifestations of Salmonella infections. Medicine (Baltimore). 1987;66:349–88.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Sirinavin S, Garner P. Antibiotics for treating Salmonella gut infections. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000;Suppl 2:CD001167.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Scott DA. Vaccines against Campylobacter jejuni. J Infect Dis. 1997;176 Suppl 2:S183–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bereswill S, Kist M. Recent developments in Campylobacter pathogenesis. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2003;16:487–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Blaser MJ, Reller LB. Campylobacter enteritis. N Engl J Med. 1981;305:1444–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Cover TL, Aber RC. Yersinia enterocolitica. N Engl J Med. 1989;321:16–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ostroff SM, Kapperud G, Lassen J, et al. Clinical features of sporadic Yersinia enterocolitica infections in Norway. J Infect Dis. 1992;166:812–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Guth AA, Kim U. The reappearance of abdominal tuberculosis. Surg Gynecol Obstet. 1991;172:432–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hamer DH, Gorbach SL. Tuberculosis of the intestinal tract. In: Felman M, Scharschmidt BF, Sleisenger MH, editors. Sleisenger and Fordtrans’s gastrointestinal and liver disease. Pathophysiology, diagnosis, management. 6th ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 1998. p. 1622–4. Vol 2.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Almadi MA, Ghosh S, Aljebreen AM. Differentiating intestinal tuberculosis from Crohn’s disease: a diagnostic challenge. Am J Gastroenterol. 2009;104:1003–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Chong VH, Lim KS. Gastrointestinal tuberculosis. Singapore Med J. 2009;50:638–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Krishnan P, Vayoth SO, Dhar P, Surendran S, Ponnambathayil S. Laparoscopy in suspected abdominal tuberculosis is useful as an early diagnostic method. ANZ J Surg. 2008;78:987–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kim SH, Cho OH, Park SJ, et al. Diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis by T-cell-based assays on peripheral blood and peritoneal fluid mononuclear cells. J Infect. 2009;59(6):409–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Muneef MA, Memish Z, Mahmoud SA, et al. Tuberculosis in the belly: a review of forty-six cases involving the gastrointestinal tract and peritoneum. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2001;36(5):528–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Choudhury B, Risley CL, Ghani AC, et al. Identification of individuals with gonorrhoea within sexual networks: a population-based study. Lancet. 2006;368:139–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hamlyn E, Taylor C. Sexually transmitted proctitis. Postgrad Med J. 2006;82:733–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    McMillan A, Young H. Clinical correlates of rectal gonococcal and chlamydial infections. Int J STD AIDS. 2006;17:387–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Wang SA, Harvey AB, Conner SM, et al. Antimicrobial resistance for Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the United States, 1988 to 2003: the spread of fluoroquinolone resistance. Ann Intern Med. 2007;147:81–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Nieuwenhuis RF, Ossewaarde JM, Gotz HM, et al. Resurgence of lymphogranuloma venereum in Western Europe: an outbreak of Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 proctitis in the Netherlands among men who have sex with men. Clin Infect Dis. 2004;39:996–1003.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Richardson D, Goldmeier D. Lymphogranuloma venereum: an emerging cause of proctitis in men who have sex with men. Int J STD AIDS. 2007;18:11–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Van der Bij AK, Spaargaren J, Morre SA, et al. Diagnostic and clinical implications of anorectal lymphogranuloma venereum in men who have sex with men: a retrospective case-control study. Clin Infect Dis. 2006;42:186–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Kaplan JE, Benson C, Holmes KH, et al. Guidelines for prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections in HIV-infected adults and adolescents: recommendations from CDC, the National Institutes of Health, and the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2009;58(RR-4):1–207.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Workowski KA, Berman SM. Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2006;55(RR-11):1–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Skalsky K, Yahav D, Bishara J, et al. Treatment of human brucellosis: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. BMJ. 2008;336:701–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Uddin MJ, Sanyal SC, Mustafa AS, et al. The role of aggressive medical therapy along with early surgical intervention in the cure of Brucella endocarditis. Ann Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1998;4:209–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Cintron JR, Del Pino A, Duarte B, Wood D. Abdominal actinomycosis. Dis Colon Rectum. 1996;39:105–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Yang SH, Li AF, Lin JK. Colonoscopy in abdominal actinomycosis. Gastrointest Endosc. 2000;51:236–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Garner JP, Macdonald M, Kumar PK. Abdominal actinomycosis. Int J Surg. 2007;5:441–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Staras SA, Dollard SC, Radford KW, Flanders WD, Pass RF, Cannon MJ. Seroprevalence of cytomegalovirus infection in the United States, 1988–1994. Clin Infect Dis. 2006;43:1143–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Rafailidis PI, Mourtzoukou EG, Varbobitis IC, Falagas ME. Severe cytomegalovirus infection in apparently immunocompetent patients: a systematic review. Virol J. 2008;5:47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Solomon L, Cannon MJ, Reyes M, et al. Epidemiology of recurrent genital herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2. Sex Transm Infect. 2003;79:456–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Schacker T, Hu HL, Koelle DM, et al. Famciclovir for the suppression of symptomatic and asymptomatic herpes simplex virus reactivation in HIV-infected persons. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Ann Intern Med. 1998;128:21–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Li E, Stanley Jr SL. Protozoa. Amebiasis. Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 1996;25:471–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Petri WA, Singh U. Enteric amebiasis. In: Guerrant R, Walker DH, Weller PF, editors. Tropical infectious diseases: principles, pathogens, and practice. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier; 2006. p. 967.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Aristizábal H, Acevedo J, Botero M. Fulminant amebic colitis. World J Surg. 1991;15:216–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Stanley Jr SL. Amoebiasis. Lancet. 2003;361:1025–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Schuster FL, Ramirez-Avila L. Current world status of Balantidium coli. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2008;21:626–38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Knight R. Giardiasis, isosporiasis, and balantidiasis. Clin Gastroenterol. 1978;7:31–47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Castro J, Vasquez-Iglesias JL, Arnal-Monreal F. Dysentery caused by Balantidium coli. Endoscopy. 1983;15:272–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Chen XM, Keithly JS, Paya CV, LaRusso NF. Cryptosporidiosis. N Engl J Med. 2002;346:1723–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Framm SR, Soave R. Agents of diarrhea. Med Clin North Am. 1997;81:427–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Jokipii L, Jokipii AM. Timing of symptoms and oocyst excretion in human cryptosporidiosis. N Engl J Med. 1986;315:1643–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Gross TL, Wheat J, Bartlett M, O’Connor KW. AIDS and multiple system involvement with cryptosporidium. Am J Gastroenterol. 1986;81:456–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Rossignol JF, Kabil SM, El-Gohary Y, Younis AM. Effect of nitazoxanide in diarrhea and enteritis caused by cryptosporidium species. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006;4:320–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Rossignol JF, Ayoub A, Ayers MS. Treatment of diarrhea caused by Cryptosporidium parvum: a prospective randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of nitazoxanide. J Infect Dis. 2001;184:103–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Blanshard C, Jackson AM, Shanson DC, et al. Cryptosporidiosis in HIV-seropositive patients. Q J Med. 1992;85:813–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Chute CG, Smith RP, Baron JA. Risk factors for endemic giardiasis. Am J Public Health. 1987;77:585–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Nash TE, Herrington DA, Losonsky GA, et al. Experimental human infections with Giardia lamblia. J Infect Dis. 1987;156:974–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Hill DR, Nash TE. Intestinal flagellate and ciliate infections. In: Guerrant RL, Walker DA, Weller PF, editors. Tropical infectious diseases: principles, pathogens and practice. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 1999.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Hiatt RA, Markell EK, Ng E. How many stool examinations are necessary to detect pathogenic intestinal protozoa? Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1995;53:36–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Dias JC. The indeterminate form of human chronic Chagas’ disease. A clinical epidemiological study. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 1989;22:147–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Chagas C. The discovery of Trypanosoma cruzi and of American Trypanosomiasis. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 1922;15:1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    de Oliveira RB, Troncon LE, Dantas RO, Menghelli UG. Gastrointestinal manifestations of Chagas’ disease. Am J Gastroenterol. 1998;93:884–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Braga MS, Lauria-Pires L, Arganaraz ER, Nascimento RJ. Persistent infections in chronic Chagas’ disease patients treated with anti-Trypanosoma cruzi nitroderivatives. Rev Inst Med Trop São Paulo. 2000;42:157–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Khuroo MS. Ascariasis. Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 1996;25:553–77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Teneza-Mora NC, Lavery EA, Chun HM. Partial small bowel obstruction in a traveler. Clin Infect Dis. 2006;43(214):256–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Weller PF. Eosinophilia in travelers. Med Clin North Am. 1992;76:1413–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Norhayati M, Oothuman P, Azizi O, Fatmah MS. Efficacy of single dose albendazole on the prevalence and intensity of infection of soil-transmitted helminths in Orang Asli children in Malaysia. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 1997;28:563–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Keating JH, Wilson RA, Skelly PJ. No overt cellular inflammation around intravascular schistosomes in vivo. J Parasitol. 2006;92:1365–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Cheever AW, Hoffmann KF, Wynn TA. Immunopathology of schistosomiasis mansoni in mice and men. Immunol Today. 2000;21:465–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Strickland GT. Gastrointestinal manifestations of schistosomiasis. Gut. 1994;35:1334–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Lucey DR, Maguire JH. Schistosomiasis. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 1993;7:635–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Brinkmann UK, Werler C, Traore M, et al. Experiences with mass chemotherapy in the control of schistosomiasis in Mali. Trop Med Parasitol. 1988;39:167–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Shekhar KC. Schistosomiasis drug therapy and treatment considerations. Drugs. 1991;42:379–405.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Siddiqui AA, Genta RM, Berk SL. Strongyloidiasis (Chap. 111). In: Guerrant RL, Walker DH, Weller PF, editors. Tropical infectious diseases – principles, practices and pathogens. Philadelphia: Churchhill-Livingstone Elsevier; 2006. p. 1274.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Longworth DL, Weller PF. Hyperinfection syndrome with strongyloidiasis. In: Remington JS, Swartz MN, editors. Current clinical topics in infectious diseases. New York: McGraw-Hill; 1986. p. 1.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Muennig P, Pallin D, Challah C, Khan K. The cost-effectiveness of ivermectin vs. albendazole in the presumptive treatment of strongyloidiasis in immigrants to the United States. Epidemiol Infect. 2004;132:1055–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Cooper E. Trichuriasis. In: Guerrant R, Walker DH, Weller PF, editors. Tropical infectious diseases: principles, pathogens and practice, vol 2. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Churchill Livingstone; 2006. p. 1252.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Albonico M, Smith PG, Hall A, et al. A randomized controlled trial comparing mebendazole and albendazole against Ascaris, Trichuris and hookworm infections. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1994;88:585–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Liu LX, Chi J, Upton MP, Ash LR. Eosinophilic colitis associated with larvae of the pinworm Enterobius vermicularis. Lancet. 1995;346:410–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Burkhart CN, Burkhart CG. Assessment of frequency, transmission, and genitourinary complications of enterobiasis (pinworms). Int J Dermatol. 2005;44:837–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Grencis RK, Cooper ES. Enterobius, trichuris, capillaria, and hookworm including ancylostoma caninum. Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 1996;25:579–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Lopez-Serrano MC, Gomez AA, Daschner A, et al. Gastroallergic anisakiasis: findings in 22 patients. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2000;15:503–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Hidalgo JA, Vazquez JA. Candidiasis. 2002. http://www.emedicine.com. Accessed Nov 2009.
  88. 88.
    Bodey GP. Candidiasis: pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment. New York: Raven Press; 1993.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Clarkston WK, Bonacini M, Peterson I. Colitis due to Histoplasma capsulatum in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Am J Gastroenterol. 1991;86:913–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Weber R, Ledergerber B, Zbinden R, et al. Enteric infections and diarrhea in human immunodeficiency virus-infected persons: prospective community-based cohort study. Swiss HIV Cohort Study. Arch Intern Med. 1999;159:1473–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Mayer HB, Wanke CA. Diagnostic strategies in HIV infected patients with diarrhea. AIDS. 1994;8:1639–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Cello JP, Day LW. Idiopathic AIDS enteropathy and treatment of gastrointestinal opportunistic pathogens. Gastroenterology. 2009;136:1952–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Aslam S, Musher D. An update on diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of Clostridium difficile-associated disease. Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 2006;35:315–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Johnson S, Clabots CR, Linn FV, et al. Nosocomial Clostridium difficile colonization and disease. Lancet. 1990;336:97–100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Kyne L, Sougioultzis S, McFarland LV, et al. Underlying disease severity as a major risk factor for nosocomial Clostridium difficile diarrhea. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2002;23:653–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Senior K. Concern over Clostridium difficile in the USA. Lancet Infect Dis. 2008;8:777–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Yee J, Dixon CM, Mclean AP, Meakins JL. Clostridium difficile disease in a department of surgery. The significance of prophylactic antibiotics. Arch Surg. 1991;126:241–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Gerding DN, Muto CA, Owens RC. Treatment of Clostridium difficile infection. Clin Infect Dis. 2008;46:S32–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Warny M, Pepin J, Fang A, et al. Toxin production by an emerging strain of Clostridium difficile associated with outbreaks of severe disease in North America and Europe. Lancet. 2005;366:1079–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Efron PA, Mazuski JE. Clostridium difficile colitis. Surg Clin North Am. 2009;89:489–500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Schwaber MJ, Simhon A, Block C, et al. Risk factors for Clostridium difficile carriage and C. difficile-associated disease on the adult wards of an urban tertiary care hospital. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2000;19:9–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Bartlett JG, Onderdonk AB, Cisneros RL, Kasper DL. Clindamycin-associated colitis due to a toxin-producing species of Clostridium in hamsters. J Infect Dis. 1977;136:701–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Bartlett J, Moon N, Chang TW, Taylor N, Onderdonk AB. Role of Clostridium difficile in antibiotic-associated pseudomembranous colitis. Gastroenterology. 1978;75:778–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Garey KW, Sethi S, Yadav Y, DuPont HL. Meta-analysis to assess risk factors for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. J Hosp Infect. 2008;70:298–304.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Bignardi G. Risk factors for Clostridium difficile infection. J Hosp Infect. 1998;40:1–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Kim H, Rhee SH, Pothoulakis C, Lamont JT. Inflammation and apoptosis in Clostridium difficile enteritis is mediated by PGE2 up-regulation of Fas ligand. Gastroenterology. 2007;133:875–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Bartlett JG, Chang TW, Gurwith M, Gorbach SL, Onderdonk AB. Antibiotic-associated pseudomembranous colitis due to toxin producing clostridia. N Engl J Med. 1978;298:531–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Psuedomembranous colitis: causes and cures. Digestion. 1999;60:91–100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Fekety R. Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea and colitis. Am J Gastroenterol. 1997;92:739–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Kelly CP, Pothoularis C, LaMont JT. Clostridium difficile colitis. N Engl J Med. 1994;330:257–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Byrn JC, Maun DC, Gingold DS, et al. Predictors of mortality after colectomy for fulminant Clostridium difficile colitis. Arch Surg. 2008;143:150–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Hall JF, Berger D. Outcome of colectomy for Clostridium difficile colitits: a plea for early surgical management. Am J Surg. 2008;196:384–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Koo HL, Koo DC, Musher DM, et al. Antimotility agents for the treatment of Clostridium difficile diarrhea and colitis. Clin Infect Dis. 2009;48:598–605.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Zar F, Bakkanagari SR, Moorthi KM, Davis MB. A comparison of vancomycin and metronidazole for the treatment of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea, stratified by disease severity. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;45:302–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Wenisch C, Parschalk B, Hasenhündl M, Hirschl AM, Graninger W. Comparison of vancomycin, teicoplanin, metronidazole, and fusidic acid for the treatment of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea. Clin Infect Dis. 1996;22:813–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Follmar KE, Condron SA, Turner II, Nathan JD, Ludwig KA. Treatment of metronidazole-refractory Clostridium difficile enteritis with vancomycin. Surg Infect (Larchmt). 2008;9:195–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Fekety R, Silva J, Kauffman C, Buggy B, Deery HG. Treatment of antibiotic-associated Clostridium difficile colitis with oral vancomycin: comparison of two dosage regimens. Am J Med. 1989;86:15–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Mylonakis E, Ryan ET, Calderwood SB. Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea. Arch Intern Med. 2001;161:525–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Klinger PJ, Metzger PP, Seelig MH, et al. Clostridium difficile infection: risk factors, medical and surgical management. Dig Dis. 2000;18:147–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Kyne L, Warny M, Qamar A, Kelly CP. Asymptomatic carriage of Clostridium difficile and serum levels of IgG antibody against toxin A. N Engl J Med. 2000;342:390–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Seder C, Villalba M, Robbins J, et al. Early colectomy may be associated with improved survival in fulminant Clostridium difficile colitis: an 8-year experience. Am J Surg. 2009;197:302–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Jaber MR, Olafsson S, Fung WL, et al. Clinical review of the management of fulminant Clostridium difficile infection. Am J Gastroenterol. 2008;103:3195–203.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Miller AT, Tabrizian P, Greenstein AJ. Long-term follow-up of patients with fulminant Clostridium difficile colitis. J Gastrointest Surg. 2009;13:956–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Sailhamer EA, Carson K, Chang Y, et al. Fulminant Clostridium difficile colitis: patterns of care and predictors of mortality. Arch Surg. 2009;144:433–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Musher DM, Aslam S, Logan N, et al. Relatively poor outcome after treatment of Clostridium difficile colitis with metronidazole. Clin Infect Dis. 2005;40:1586–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Johnson S. Recurrent Clostridium difficile infection: a review of risk factors, treatments, and outcomes. J Infect. 2009;58:403–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Bauer MP, van Dissel JT, Kuijper EJ. Clostridium difficile: controversies and approaches to management. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2009;22:510–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Mazuki JE, Longo WE. Clostridium difficile colitis. Probl Gen Surg. 2002;19:121–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Ricciardi R, Rothenberger DA, Madoff RD, et al. Increasing prevalence and severity of Clostridium difficile colitis in hospitalized patients in the United States. Arch Surg. 2007;142:1524–31.Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Mazeh H, Samet Y, Abu-Wasel B, et al. Application of a novel grading system for surgical complications after colorectal resection. J Am Coll Surg. 2009;208:355–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Shaw RS, Green Jr TH. Massive mesenteric infarction following inferior mesenteric artery ligation in resection of the colon for carcinoma. N Engl J Med. 1953;248:890–1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Smith RF, Szilagyi DE. Ischemia of the colon as a complication in the surgery of the abdominal aorta. Arch Surg. 1960;80:806–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Boley SJ, Schwartz S, Lash J, Sternhill V. Reversible vascular occlusion of the colon. Surg Gynecol Obstet. 1963;116:53–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Marston A, Pheils MT, Thomas ML, Morson BC. Ischemic colitis. Gut. 1966;7:1–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Brandt LJ, Boley SJ. Colonic ischemia. Surg Clin North Am. 1992;72:203–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Macdonald PH. Ischaemic colitis. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. 2002;16:51–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Bower TC. Ischemic colitis. Surg Clin North Am. 1993;73: 1037–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Hagihara PF, Ernst CB, Griffen Jr WO. Incidence of ischemic colitis following abdominal aortic reconstruction. Surg Gynecol Obstet. 1979;149:571–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Sandison AJ, Panayiotopoulos Y, Edmondson RC, Tyrrell MR, Taylor PR. A 4-year prospective audit of the cause of death after infrarenal aortic aneurysm surgery. Br J Surg. 1996;83:1386–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Israeli D, Dardik H, Wolodiger F, Silvestri F, Scherl B, Chessler R. Pelvic radiation therapy as a risk factor for ischemic colitis complicating abdominal aortic reconstruction. J Vasc Surg. 1996;23:706–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Longo WE, Lee TC, Barnett MG, et al. Ischemic colitis complicating abdominal aortic aneurysm surgery in the U.S. veteran. J Surg Res. 1996;60:351–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Gandhi SK, Hanson MM, Vernava AM, Kaminski DL, Longo WE. Ischemic colitis. Dis Colon Rectum. 1996;39:88–100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Yamazaki T, Shirai Y, Tada T, Sasaki M, Sakai Y, Hatakeyama K. Ischemic colitis arising in watershed areas of the colonic blood supply: a report of two cases. Surg Today. 1997;27:460–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Longo WE, Ballantyne GH, Gusberg RJ. Ischemic colitis: patterns and prognosis. Dis Colon Rectum. 1992;35:726–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Assadian A, Assadian O, Senekowitsch C, et al. Plasma d-lactate as a potential early marker for colon ischaemia after open aortic reconstruction. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2006;31:470–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Murray MJ, Gonze MD, Nowak LR, Cobb CF. Serum d-­lactate levels as an aid to diagnosing acute intestinal ischemia. Am J Surg. 1994;167:575–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Poeze M, Froon AHM, Greve JWM, Ramsay G. d-Lactate as an early marker of intestinal ischemia after ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. Br J Surg. 1998;85:1221–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Scherpenisse J, van Hees PAM. The endoscopic spectrum of colonic mucosal injury following aortic aneurysm resection. Endoscopy. 1989;21:174–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Forde KA, Lebwohl O, Wolff M, Voorhees AB. Reversible ischemic colitis: correlation of colonoscopic and pathologic changes. Am J Gastroenterol. 1979;72:182–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Wolf EA, Sprayregen S, Bakel CW, et al. Radiology in intestinal ischemia: plain film contrast, and other imaging studies. Surg Clin North Am. 1992;72:107–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Wiesner W, Mortele KJ, Glickman JN, Ji H, Khurana B, Ros PR. CT findings in isolated ischemic proctosigmoiditis. Eur Radiol. 2002;12:1762–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Balthazar EJ, Yen BC, Gordon RB. Ischemic colitis: CT evaluation of 54 cases. Radiology. 1999;211:381–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Teefey SA, Roarke MC, Brink JA, et al. Bowel wall thickening: differentiation of inflammation from ischemia with color Doppler and duplex US. Radiology. 1996;198:547–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Fitzgerald SF, Kaminski DL. Ischemic colitis. Semin Colon Rectal Surg. 1993;4:222–8.Google Scholar
  155. 155.
    van Saene HK, Percival A. Bowel microorganisms – a target for selective antimicrobial control. J Hosp Infect. 1991;19(Suppl C):19–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Poth EJ, McClure JN. Intestinal obstruction: protective action of sulfasuxidine and sulfathalidine to ileum following vascular damage. Ann Surg. 1950;131:159–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Sarnoff SJ, Fine J. Effect of chemotherapy on ileum subjected to vascular injury. Ann Surg. 1945;121:74–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Scharff JR, Longo WE, Vartanian SM, et al. Ischemic colitis: spectrum of disease and outcome. Surgery. 2003;134:624–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Kaminsky O, Yampolski I, Aranovich D, Gnessin E, Greif F. Does a second-look operation improve survival in patients with peritonitis due to acute mesenteric ischemia? A five-year retrospective experience. World J Surg. 2005;29:645–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Schneider DB, Nelken NA, Messina LM, Ehrenfeld WK. Isolated inferior mesenteric artery revascularization for chronic visceral ischemia. J Vasc Surg. 1999;30:51–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Rapp JH, Reilly LM, Qvarfordt PG, Goldstone J, Ehrenfeld WK, Stoney RJ. Durability of endarterectomy and antegrade grafts in the treatment of chronic visceral ischemia. J Vasc Surg. 1986;3:799–806.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Bailey JA, Jacobs DL, Bahadursingh A, Longo WE. Endovascular treatment of segmental ischemic colitis. Dig Dis Sci. 2005;50:774–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Cappell MS. Intestinal (mesenteric) vasculopathy III. Ischemic colitis and chronic mesenteric ischemia. Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 1998;27:827–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Bharucha AE, Tremaine WJ, Johnson CD, Batts KP. Ischemic proctosigmoiditis. Am J Gastroenterol. 1996;91:2305–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Peeters ST, Heemsbergen WD, van Putten WL, et al. Acute and late complications after radiotherapy for prostate cancer: results of a multicenter randomized trial comparing 68 Gy to 78 Gy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2005;61:1019–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Michalski JM, Winter K, Purdy JA, et al. Toxicity after three-dimensional radiotherapy for prostate cancer on RTOG 9406 dose. Level V. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2005;62:706–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Baker DG. The response of the microvascular system to radiation: a review. Cancer Invest. 1989;7:287–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Novak JM, Collins JT, Donowitz M, et al. Effects of radiation on the human gastrointestinal tract. J Clin Gastroenterol. 1979;1:9–39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Pinkawa M, Piroth MD, Fischedick K, et al. Self-assessed bowel toxicity after external beam radiotherapy for prostate cancer-predictive factors on irritative symptoms, incontinence and rectal bleeding. Radiat Oncol. 2009;4:36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Leupin N, Curschmann J, Kransbuhler H, et al. Acute radiation colitis in patients treated with short-term preoperative radiotherapy for rectal cancer. Am J Surg Pathol. 2002;26:498–504.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Nussbaum ML, Campana TJ, Weese JL. Radiation-induced intestinal injury. Clin Plast Surg. 1993;20:573–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    van Lin EN, Kristinsson J, Philippens ME, et al. Reduced late rectal mucosal changes after prostate three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy with endorectal balloon as observed in repeated endoscopy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2007;67:799–811.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Chism DB, Horwitz EM, Hanlon AL, et al. Late morbidity profiles in prostate cancer patients treated to 74-84 Gy by a simple four-field coplanar beam arrangement. Int J Radiat Biol Phys. 2003;55:71–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Zeitman AL, DeSilvio ML, Slater JD, et al. Comparison of conventional-dose vs high-dose conformal radiation therapy in clinically localized adenocarcinoma of the prostate. JAMA. 2005;294:1233–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Shah SA, Cima RR, Benoit E, et al. Rectal complications after prostate brachytherapy. Dis Colon Rectum. 2004;47:1487–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Stone NN, Stock RG. Long-term urinary, sexual, and rectal morbidity in patients treated with Iodine-125 prostate brachytherapy followed up for a minimum of 5 years. Urology. 2007;69:338–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Talcott JA, Clark JA, Stark PC, Mitchell SP. Long term treatment related complications of brachytherapy for early prostate cancer: a survey of patients previously treated. J Urol. 2001;166:494–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Larson DW, Chrouser K, Young-Fadok T, Nelson H. Rectal complications after modern radiation for prostate cancer: a colorectal surgical challenge. J Gastrointest Surg. 2005;9:461–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Kjorstadt RJ, Halligan JB, Steele SR. Colorectal complications of external beam radiation versus brachytherapy for prostate cancer. Am J Surg. 2008;195:616–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Goldstein F, Khoury J, Thornton JJ. Treatment of chronic radiation enteritis and colitis with salicylazosulfapyridine and systemic corticosteroids. A pilot study. Am J Gastroenterol. 1976;65:201–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Denton A, Forbes A, Andreyev J, Maher EJ. Non surgical interventions for late radiation proctitis in patients who have received radical radiotherapy to the pelvis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;Suppl 1:CD003455.Google Scholar
  182. 182.
    Luna-Pérez P, Rodríguez-Ramírez SE. Formalin instillation for refractory radiation-induced hemorrhagic proctitis. J Surg Oncol. 2002;80:41–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    de Parades V, Etienney I, Bauer P, et al. Formalin application in the treatment of chronic radiation-induced hemorrhagic proctitis – an effective but not risk-free procedure: a prospective study of 33 patients. Dis Colon Rectum. 2005;48:1535–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Jones K, Evans AW, Bristow RG, Levin W. Treatment of radiation proctitis with hyperbaric oxygen. Radiother Oncol. 2006;78:91–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Zimmerer T, Böcker U, Wenz F, Singer MV. Medical prevention and treatment of acute and chronic radiation induced enteritis – is there any proven therapy? A short review. Z Gastroenterol. 2008;46:441–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Jahraus CD, Bettenhausen D, Malik U, Sellitti M, St Clair WH. Prevention of acute radiation-induced proctosigmoiditis by balsalazide: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial in prostate cancer patients. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2005;63:1483–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Kasibhatla M, Clough RW, Montana GS, et al. Predictors of severe gastrointestinal toxicity after external beam radiotherapy and interstitial brachytherapy for advanced or recurrent gynecologic malignancies. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2006;65:398–403.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Regimbeau JM, Panis Y, Gouzi JL. French University Association for surgical research. Operative and long term results after surgery for chronic radiation enteritis. Am J Surg. 2001;182:237–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Russell JC, Welsh JP. Operative management of radiation injuries of the intestinal tract. Am J Surg. 1979;137:433–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Meissner K. Late radiogenic small bowel damage: guidelines for the general surgeon. Dig Surg. 1999;16:169–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Onodera H, Nagayama S, Mori A, Fujimoto A, Tachibana T, Yonenaga Y. Reappraisal of surgical treatment for radiation enteritis. World J Surg. 2005;29:459–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Freeman HJ, Weinstein WM, Shnitka TK, et al. Watery diarrhea syndrome associated with a lesion of the colonic basement membrane-lamina propria interface. Ann R Coll Physicians Surg Can. 1976;9:45.Google Scholar
  193. 193.
    Pardi DS, Loftus EVJ, Smyrk TC, et al. The epidemiology of microscopic colitis: a population-based study in Olmsted County, Minnesota. Gut. 2007;56:504–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Olesen M, Eriksson S, Bohr J, et al. Lymphocytic colitis: a retrospective clinical study of 199 Swedish patients. Gut. 2004;53:536–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Fernandez-Banares F, Salas A, Forne M, et al. Incidence of collagenous and lymphocytic colitis: a 5-year population-based study. Am J Gastroenterol. 1999;94:418–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Bohr J, Tysk C, Eriksson S, et al. Collagenous colitis in Orebro, Sweden, an epidemiological study 1984–1993. Gut. 1995;37:394–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Bohr J, Tysk C, Eriksson S, et al. Collagenous colitis: a retrospective study of clinical presentation and treatment in 163 patients. Gut. 1996;39:846–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Tanaka M, Mazzoleni G, Riddell RH. Distribution of collagenous colitis: utility of flexible sigmoidoscopy. Gut. 1992;33:65–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Fernandez-Banares F, Esteve M, Salas A, et al. Bile acid malabsorption in microscopic colitis and in previously unexplained functional chronic diarrhea. Dig Dis Sci. 2001;46:2231–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Bohr J, Tysk C, Yang P, et al. Autoantibodies and immunoglobulins in collagenous colitis. Gut. 1996;39:73–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Data I, Brar SS, Andrews CN, Dupre M, Ball CG, Buie WD, et al. Microscopic colitis: a review for the surgical endoscopist. Can J Surg. 2009;52:E167–72.Google Scholar
  202. 202.
    Lindstrom CG. “Collagenous colitis” with watery diarrhoea – a new entity? Pathol Eur. 1976;11:87–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Abdo AA, Urbanski SJ, Beck PL. Lymphocytic and collagenous colitis: the emerging entity of microscopic colitis. An update on pathophysiology, diagnosis and management. Can J Gastroenterol. 2003;17:425–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Pardi DS, Smyrk TC, Tremaine WJ, et al. Microscopic colitis: a review. Am J Gastroenterol. 2002;97:794–802.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Fine KD, Seidel RH, Do K. The prevalence, anatomic distribution, and diagnosis of colonic causes of chronic diarrhea. Gastrointest Endosc. 2000;51:318–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Zins BJ, Tremaine WJ, Carpenter HA. Collagenous colitis: mucosal biopsies and association with fecal leukocytes. Mayo Clin Proc. 1995;70:430–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Fine KD, Lee EL. Efficacy of open-label bismuth subsalicylate for the treatment of microscopic colitis. Gastroenterology. 1998;114:29–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Ung KA, Gillberg R, Kilander A, et al. Role of bile acids and bile acid binding agents in patients with collagenous colitis. Gut. 2000;46:170–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Chande N, McDonald JW, MacDonald JK. Interventions for treating collagenous colitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006;Suppl 4:CD003575.Google Scholar
  210. 210.
    Jarnerot G, Tysk C, Bohr J, et al. Collagenous colitis and fecal stream diversion. Gastroenterology. 1995;109:449–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Munch A, Soderholm JD, Wallon C, et al. Dynamics of mucosal permeability and inflammation in collagenous colitis before, during, and after loop ileostomy. Gut. 2005;54:1126–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Riaz AA, Pitt J, Stirling RW, et al. Restorative proctocolectomy for collagenous colitis. J R Soc Med. 2000;93:261.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Varghese L, Galandiuk S, Tremaine WJ, et al. Lymphocytic colitis treated with proctocolectomy and ileal J-pouch-anal anastomosis: report of a case. Dis Colon Rectum. 2002;45:123–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Kaijser R. Zur Kenntnis der allergischen affektionen des verdauungs kanals vom standput des chirurgen aus. Arch Klin Chir. 1937;188:36–64.Google Scholar
  215. 215.
    Rothenberg ME. Eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders (EGID). J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2004;113:11–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Kravis LP, South MA, Rosenlund ML. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis in the pediatric patient. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 1982;21:713–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    Yan BM, Shaffer EA. Primary eosinophilic disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. Gut. 2009;58:721–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Okpara N, Aswad B, Baffy G. Eosinophilic colitis. World J Gastroenterol. 2009;15:2975–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    Lange P, Oun H, Fuller S, Turney JH. Eosinophilic colitis due to rifampicin. Lancet. 1994;344:1296–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Bridges AJ, Marshall JB, Diaz-Arias AA. Acute eosinophilic colitis and hypersensitivity reaction associated with naproxen therapy. Am J Med. 1990;89:526–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Jimenez-Saenz M, Gonzalez-Campora R, Linares-­Santiago E, Herrerias-Gutierrez JM. Bleeding colonic ulcer and eosinophilic colitis: a rare complication of nonsteroidal anti-­inflammatory drugs. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2006;40:84–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. 222.
    Chen MJ, Chu CH, Lin SC, Shih SC, Wang TE. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis: clinical experience with 15 patients. World J Gastroenterol. 2003;9:2813–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. 223.
    Khan S. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. 2005;19:177–98.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    Shin WG, Park CH, Lee YS, et al. Eosinophilic enteritis presenting as intussusception in an adult. Korean J Intern Med. 2007;22:13–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    Fraile G, Rodriguez-Garcia JL, Beni-Perez R, Redondo C. Localized eosinophilic gastroenteritis with necrotizing granulomas presenting as acute abdomen. Postgrad Med J. 1994;70:510–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    Ebert EC, Hagspiel KD, Nagar M, et al. Polyarteritis nodosa and extrahepatic manifestations of HBV infection: the case against autoimmune intervention in pathogenesis. J Autoimmun. 2001;16:269–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. 227.
    Levine SM, Hellmann DB, Stone JH. Gastrointestinal involvement in polyarteritis nodosa (1986–2000): presentation and outcomes in 24 patients. Am J Med. 2002;112:386–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. 228.
    Frohnert PP, Sheps SG. Long-term follow-up study of periarteritis nodosa. Am J Med. 1967;43:8–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. 229.
    Gayraud M, Guillevin L, le Toumelin P, et al. Long-term follow up of polyarteritis nodosa, microscopic polyangiitis, and Churg-Strauss syndrome. Arthritis Rheum. 2001;44:666–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. 230.
    Goldman LP, Lindenberg RL. Henoch-Schonlein purpura. Gastrointestinal manifestations with endoscopic correlation. Am J Gastroenterol. 1981;75:357–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    Ebert EC. Gastrointestinal manifestations of Henoch-­Schonlein purpura. Dig Dis Sci. 2008;53:2011–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. 232.
    Trapani S, Micheli A, Grisolia F, et al. Henoch Schonlein purpura in childhood: epidemiological and clinical analysis of 150 cases over a 5-year period and review of literature. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2005;35:143–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. 233.
    Jovaisas A, Kraag G. Acute gastrointestinal manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus. Can J Surg. 1987;30:185–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. 234.
    Perlemuter G, Chaussade S, Wechsler B, et al. Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction in systemic lupus erythematosus. Gut. 1998;43:117–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. 235.
    Sakane T, Takeno M, Suzuki N, Inaba G. Behcet’s disease. N Engl J Med. 1999;341:1284–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. 236.
    Lee CR, Kim WH, Cho YS, et al. Colonoscopic findings in intestinal Behçet’s disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2001;7:243–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. 237.
    Naganuma M, Sakuraba A, Hisamatsu T, et al. Efficacy of infliximab for induction and maintenance of remission in intestinal Behçet’s disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2008;14:1259–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. 238.
    Ebert EC. Gastrointestinal manifestations of Behçet’s disease. Dig Dis Sci. 2009;54:201–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. 239.
    Matsumoto T, Uekusa T, Fukuda Y. Vasculo-Behcet’s ­disease: a pathologic study of eight cases. Hum Pathol. 1991;22:45–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. 240.
    Kasahara Y, Tanaka S, Nishino M, Umemura H, Shiraha S, Kuyama T. Intestinal involvement in Behcet’s disease: review of 136 surgical cases in the Japanese literature. Dis Colon Rectum. 1981;24:103–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. 241.
    Forbes A, Marie I. Gastrointestinal complications: the most frequent internal complications of systemic sclerosis. Rheumatol Oxf. 2009;48 Suppl 3:iii36–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. 242.
    Soudah HC, Hasler WL, Owyang C. Effect of octreotide on intestinal motility and bacterial overgrowth in scleroderma. N Engl J Med. 1991;325:1461–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. 243.
    deSouza NM, Williams AD, Wilson HJ, et al. Fecal incontinence in scleroderma: assessment of the anal sphincter with thin-section endoanal MR imaging. Radiology. 1998;208:529.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. 244.
    Kenefick NJ, Vaizey CJ, Nicholls RJ, Cohen R, Kamm MA. Sacral nerve stimulation for faecal incontinence due to systemic sclerosis. Gut. 2002;51:881–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. 245.
    Murray FE, O’Brien M, Birkett DH, Kennedy SM, LaMont JT. Diversion colitis: pathologic findings in a resected sigmoid colon and rectum. Gastroenterology. 1987;93:1404–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. 246.
    Geraghty JM, Talbot IC. Diversion colitis: histological features in the colon and rectum after defunctiong colostomy. Gut. 1991;32:1020–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. 247.
    Villanacci V, Talbot IC, Rossi E, Bassotti G. Ischaemia: a pathogenetic clue in diversion colitis? Colorectal Dis. 2007;9:601–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. 248.
    Ferguson CM, Siegel RJ. A prospective evaluation of diversion colitis. Am Surg. 1991;57:46–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  249. 249.
    Glotzer DJ, Glick ME, Goldman H. Proctitis and colitis following diversion of the fecal streatm. Gastroenterology. 1981;80:438–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  250. 250.
    Roediger WE. The starved colon – diminished mucosal nutrition, diminished absorption and colitis. Dis Colon Rectum. 1990;33:856–62.Google Scholar
  251. 251.
    Orsay CP, Kim DO, Pearl RK, Abcarian H. Diversion colitis in patients scheduled for colostomy closure. Dis Colon Rectum. 1993;36:366–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. 252.
    Szczepkowski M, Kobus A, Borycka K. How to treat diversion colitis? – current state of medical knowledge, own research and experience. Acta Chir Iugosl. 2008;55:77–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. 253.
    Harig JM, Soergel KH, Komorowski RA, Wood CM. Treatment of diversion colitis with short-chain-fatty acid irrigation. N Engl J Med. 1989;320:23–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. 254.
    Guillemot F, Colombel JF, Neut C, et al. Treatment of diversion colitis by short chain fatty acids. Prospective double blind study. Dis Colon Rectum. 1991;34:861–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. 255.
    Davila ML. Neutropenic enterocolitis. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2006;22:44–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  256. 256.
    Cappell MS. Colonic toxicity of administered drugs and chemicals. Am J Gastroenterol. 2004;99:1175–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  257. 257.
    Cardona AF, Combariza JF, Reveiz L, et al. Clinical and microbiological characteristics of neutropenic enterocolitis in adults with blood cancer in the National Cancer Institute of Bogota D.C. Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clín. 2004;22:462–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  258. 258.
    Thoeni RF, Cello JP. CT imaging of colitis. Radiology. 2006; 240:623–38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  259. 259.
    Kirkpatrick ID, Greenberg HM. Gastrointestinal complications in the neutropenic patient: characterization and differentiation with abdominal CT. Radiology. 2003;226:668–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. 260.
    Bavaro MF. Neutropenic enterocolitis. Curr Gastroenterol Rep. 2002;4:297–301.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  261. 261.
    Moir CR, Scudamore CH, Benny WB. Typhlitis: selective surgical management. Am J Surg. 1986;151:563–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  262. 262.
    Keidan RD, Fanning J, Gatenby RA, Weese JL. Recurrent typhlitis. A disease resulting from aggressive chemotherapy. Dis Colon Rectum. 1989;32:206–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  263. 263.
    Jonas G, Mahoney A, Murray J, Gertler S. Chemical colitis due to endoscope cleaning solutions: a mimic of pseudomembranous colitis. Gastroenterology. 1988;95:1403–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  264. 264.
    Stein BL, Lamoureux E, Miller M, Vasilevsky CA, Julien L, Gordon PH. Glutaraldehyde-induced colitis. Can J Surg. 2001;44:113–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  265. 265.
    Ryan CK, Potter GD. Disifectant colitis: rinse as well as you wash. J Clin Gastroenterol. 1995;21:6–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  266. 266.
    Sheibani S, Gerson LB. Chemical colitis. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2008;42:115–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  267. 267.
    Gan SI, Price IM. Waiting list induced proctitis: the hydrogen peroxide enema. Can J Gastroenterol. 2003;17:727–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  268. 268.
    Cappell MS, Simon T. Fulminant acute colitis following a self-administered hydrofluoric acid enema. Am J Gastroenterol. 1993;88:122–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  269. 269.
    Ahishali E, Uygur-Bayramicli O, Dolapcioglu C, et al. Chemical colitis due to glutaraldehyde: case series and review of the literature. Dig Dis Sci. 2009;54:2541–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  270. 270.
    Shibuya T, Ohkusa T, Yokoyama T, et al. Colonic mucosal lesions associated with long-term or short-term administration of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Colorectal Dis. 2009;12:1113–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  271. 271.
    Grau MV, Sandler RS, McKeown-Eyssen G, et al. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use after 3 years of aspirin use and colorectal adenoma risk: observational follow-up of a randomized study. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2009;101:267–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  272. 272.
    Hawkey CJ. NSAIDs, coxibs, and the intestine. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2006;47 Suppl 1:S72–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  273. 273.
    Kefalakes H, Stylianides TJ, Amanakis G, Kolios G. Exacerbation of inflammatory bowel diseases associated with the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: myth or reality? Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2009;65:963–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  274. 274.
    Takeuchi K, Smale S, Premchand P, et al. Prevalence and mechanism of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced clinical relapse in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006;4:196–202.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  275. 275.
    Gleeson MH, Davis AJM. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, aspirin and newly diagnosed colitis: a case controlled study. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2003;17:817–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  276. 276.
    Jäckel R, Fuchs M, Raff T. Wiedemann B [Drug-induced toxic epidermal necrolysis with involvement of the intestinal and respiratory tract. A case report]. Anaesthesist. 2002;51:815–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  277. 277.
    Otomi M, Yano M, Aoki H, et al. A case of toxic epidermal necrolysis with severe intestinal manifestation. Nippon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi. 2008;105:1353–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  278. 278.
    Carter FM, Mitchell CK. Toxic epidermal necrolysis – an unusual cause of colonic perforation. Report of a case. Dis Colon Rectum. 1993;36:773–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Justin A. Maykel
    • 1
  • Scott R. Steele
    • 2
  1. 1.Division of Colon and Rectal Surgery, Department of SurgeryUniversity of Massachusetts Medical CenterWorcesterUSA
  2. 2.Colon and Rectal Surgery Department of SurgeryMadigan Army Medical CenterTacomaUSA

Personalised recommendations