Advertisement

Protozoa

  • Marc E. Grossman
  • Lindy P. Fox
  • Carrie Kovarik
  • Misha Rosenbach
Chapter

Abstract

Reactivation of Chagas’ disease (American trypanosomiasis) in immunocompromised hosts presents as a constellation of symptoms and may include skin signs.1 Patients with Chagas’ cardiomyopathy who have undergone cardiac transplantation experience Chagas’ disease reactivation 28.8–33.8% of the time within weeks to 3 months of initiating immunosuppressive therapy.2,3 Reactivation Chagas’ disease may present with fever, heart failure, myocarditis, and painful skin lesions.

Keywords

Human Immunodeficiency Virus Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Visceral Leishmaniasis Acquire Immune Deficiency Syndrome Cutaneous Leishmaniasis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas’ Disease)

  1. 1.
    Kirchhoff LV. American trypanosomiasis (Chagas’ disease) – a tropical disease now in the United States. N Engl J Med. 1993;329(9):639–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Stolf NA, Higushi L, Bocchi E, et al. Heart transplantation in patients with Chagas’ disease cardiomyopathy. J Heart Transplant. 1987;6(5):307–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Godoy HL, Guerra CM, Viegas RF, et al. Infections in heart transplant recipients in Brazil: the challenge of Chagas’ disease. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2010;29(3):286–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hall CS, Fields K. Cutaneous presentation of Chagas’ disease reactivation in a heart-transplant patient in Utah. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2008;58(3):529–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    La Forgia MP, Pellerano G, de las Mercedes Portaluppi M, Kien MC, Chouela EN. Cutaneous manifestation of reactivation of Chagas disease in a renal transplant patient: long-term follow-up. Arch Dermatol. 2003;139(1):104–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Tomimori-Yamashita J, Deps PD, Almeida DR, et al. Cutaneous manifestation of Chagas’ disease after heart transplantation: successful treatment with allopurinol. Br J Dermatol. 1997;137(4):626–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Libow LF, Beltrani VP, Silvers DN, Grossman ME. Post-cardiac transplant reactivation of Chagas’ disease diagnosed by skin biopsy. Cutis. 1991;48(1):37–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sartori AM, Ibrahim KY, Nunes Westphalen EV, et al. Manifestations of Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis) in patients with HIV/AIDS. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2007;101(1):31–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sartori AM, Sotto MN, Braz LM, et al. Reactivation of Chagas disease manifested by skin lesions in a patient with AIDS. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1999;93(6):631–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Riarte A, Luna C, Sabatiello R, et al. Chagas’ disease in patients with kidney transplants: 7 years of experience, 1989–1996. Clin Infect Dis. 1999;29:561–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gallerano V, Consigli J, Pereyra S, et al. Chagas’ disease reactivation with skin symptoms in a patient with kidney transplant. Int J Dermatol. 2007;46(6):607–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Leishmania

  1. 12.
    Antinori S, Cascio A, Parravicini C, Bianchi R, Corbellino M. Leishmaniasis among organ transplant recipients. Lancet Infect Dis. 2008;8(3):191–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 13.
    Rosenthal PJ, Chaisson RE, Hadley WK, Leech JH. Rectal leishmaniasis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Am J Med. 1988;84(2):307–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 14.
    Lindoso JA, Barbosa RN, Posada-Vergara MP, et al. Unusual manifestations of tegumentary leishmaniasis in AIDS patients from the New World. Br J Dermatol. 2009;160(2):311–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 15.
    Da-Cruz AM, Machado ES, Menezes JA, Rutowitsch MS, Coutinho SG. Cellular and humoral immune responses of a patient with American cutaneous leishmaniasis and AIDS. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1992;86(5):511–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 16.
    Smith D, Gazzard B, Lindley RP, et al. Visceral leishmaniasis (kala azar) in a patient with AIDS. AIDS. 1989;3(1):41–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 17.
    Yebra M, Segovia J, Manzano L, et al. Disseminated-to-skin kala-azar and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Ann Intern Med. 1988;108(3):490–1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 18.
    Puig L, Pradinaud R. Leishmania and HIV co-infection: dermatological manifestations. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2003;97 Suppl 1:107–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 19.
    López-Medrano F, Costa JR, Rodriguez-Peralto JL, Aguado JM. An HIV-positive man with tattoo induration. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;45(2):220–1, 267–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 20.
    Iborra C, Caumes E, Carrière J, et al. Mucosal leishmaniasis in a heart transplant recipient. Br J Dermatol. 1998;138(1):190–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 21.
    Al-Qattan MM. Extensive cutaneous leishmaniasis of the upper limb in a patient with leukemia. Ann Plast Surg. 2002;48(6):670–1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 22.
    Mattos M, Caiza A, Fernandes O, et al. American cutaneous leishmaniasis associated with HIV infection: report of four cases. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 1998;10(3):218–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 23.
    Choi CM, Lerner EA. Leishmaniasis: recognition and management with a focus on the immunocompromised patient. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2002;3(2):91–105.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 24.
    Alvar J, Aparicio P, Aseffa A, et al. The relationship between leishmaniasis and AIDS: the second 10 years. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2008;21(2):334–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 25.
    van der Spek BW, Hillebrand-Haverkort ME, Stam F, Kager PA. One of the many faces of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. Clin Infect Dis. 2009;48(6):764–5, 836–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 26.
    Colebunders R, Depraetere K, Verstraeten T, et al. Unusual cutaneous lesions in two patients with visceral leishmaniasis and HIV infection. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1999;41(5 Pt 2):847–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 27.
    González-Beato MJ, Moyano B, Sánchez C, et al. Kaposi’s sarcoma-like lesions and other nodules as cutaneous involvement in AIDS-related visceral leishmaniasis. Br J Dermatol. 2000;143(6):1316–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 28.
    Ara M, Maillo C, Peón G, et al. Visceral leishmaniasis with cutaneous lesions in a patient infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Br J Dermatol. 1998;139(1):114–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 29.
    Daudén E, Peñas PF, Rios L, et al. Leishmaniasis presenting as a dermatomyositis-like eruption in AIDS. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1996;35(2 Pt 2):316–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Amoeba

  1. 30.
    Visvesvara GS, Moura H, Schuster FL. Pathogenic and opportunistic free-living amoebae: Acanthamoeba spp., Balamuthia mandrillaris, Naegleria fowleri, and Sappinia diploidea. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2007;50(1):1–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 31.
    Ma P, Visvesvara GS, Martinez AJ, et al. Naegleria and Acanthamoeba infections: review. Rev Infect Dis. 1990;12(3):490–513.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 32.
    Marciano-Cabral F, Cabral G. Acanthamoeba spp. as agents of disease in humans. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2003;16(2):273–307.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 33.
    Galarza C, Ramos W, Gutierrez EL, et al. Cutaneous acanthamebiasis infection in immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. Int J Dermatol. 2009;48(12):1324–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 34.
    Torno Jr MS, Babapour R, Gurevitch A, Witt MD. Cutaneous acanthamoebiasis in AIDS. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2000;42(2 Pt 2):351–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 35.
    Steinberg JP, Galindo RL, Kraus ES, Ghanem KG. Disseminated acanthamebiasis in a renal transplant recipient with osteomyelitis and cutaneous lesions: case report and literature review. Clin Infect Dis. 2002;35(5):e43–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 36.
    May LP, Sidhu GS, Buchness MR. Diagnosis of Acanthamoeba infection by cutaneous manifestations in a man seropositive to HIV. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1992;26(2 Pt 2):352–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 37.
    Rosenberg AS, Morgan MB. Disseminated acanthamoebiasis presenting as lobular panniculitis with necrotizing vasculitis in a patient with AIDS. J Cutan Pathol. 2001;28(6):307–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 38.
    Barete S, Combes A, de Jonckheere JF, et al. Fatal disseminated Acanthamoeba lenticulata infection in a heart transplant patient. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(5):736–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 39.
    Slater CA, Sickel JZ, Visvesvara GS, Pabico RC, Gaspari AA. Brief report: successful treatment of disseminated acanthamoeba infection in an immunocompromised patient. N Engl J Med. 1994;331(2):85–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 40.
    Visvesvara GS, Stehr-Green JK. Epidemiology of free-living ameba infections. J Protozool. 1990;37(4):25S–33S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 41.
    Young AL, Leboeuf NR, Tsiouris SJ, Husain S, Grossman ME. Fatal disseminated Acanthamoeba infection in a liver transplant recipient immunocompromised by combination therapies for graft-versus-host disease. Transpl Infect Dis. 2010;12(6):529–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 42.
    Siddiqui R, Khan NA. Balamuthia amoebic encephalitis: an emerging disease with fatal consequences. Microb Pathog. 2008;44(2):89–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 43.
    Lupi O, Bartlett BL, Haugen RN, et al. Tropical dermatology: tropical diseases caused by protozoa. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2009;60(6):897–925; quiz 926–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Pneumocystis

  1. 44.
    Coulman CU, Greene I, Archibald RW. Cutaneous pneumocystosis. Ann Intern Med. 1987;106(3):396–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 45.
    Schinella RA, Breda SD, Hammerschlag PE. Otic infection due to Pneumocystis carinii in an apparently healthy man with antibody to the human immunodeficiency virus. Ann Intern Med. 1987;106(3):399–400.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 46.
    Litwin MA, Williams CM. Cutaneous Pneumocystis carinii infection mimicking Kaposi sarcoma. Ann Intern Med. 1992;117(1):48–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 47.
    Hennessey NP, Parro EL, Cockerell CJ. Cutaneous Pneumocystis carinii infection in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Arch Dermatol. 1991;127(11):1699–701.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 48.
    Davey Jr RT, Margolis D, Kleiner D, Deyton L, Travis W. Digital necrosis and disseminated Pneumocystis carinii infection after aerosolized pentamidine prophylaxis. Ann Intern Med. 1989;111(8):681–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 49.
    Bundow DL, Aboulafia DM. Skin involvement with Pneumocystis despite dapsone prophylaxis: a rare cause of skin nodules in a patient with AIDS. Am J Med Sci. 1997;313(3):182–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 50.
    Saadat P, Ram R, Sohrabian S, Vadmal MS. Botryomycosis caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Pneumocystis carinii in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency disease. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2008;33(3):266–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 51.
    Sandler B, Potter TS, Hashimoto K. Cutaneous Pneumocystis carinii and Cryptococcus neoformans in AIDS. Br J Dermatol. 1996;134(1):159–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Toxoplasmosis

  1. 52.
    Lee SA, Diwan AH, Cohn M, Champlin R, Safdar A. Cutaneous toxoplasmosis: a case of confounding diagnosis. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2005;36(5):465–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 53.
    Vidal CI, Pollack M, Uliasz A, del Toro G, Emanuel PO. Cutaneous toxoplasmosis histologically mimicking graft-versus-host disease. Am J Dermatopathol. 2008;30(5):492–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 54.
    Amir G, Salant H, Resnick IB, Karplus R. Cutaneous toxoplasmosis after bone marrow transplantation with molecular confirmation. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2008;59(5):781–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Entamoeba

  1. 55.
    Bumb RA, Mehta RD. Amoebiasis cutis in HIV positive patient. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2006;72(3):224–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marc E. Grossman
    • 1
  • Lindy P. Fox
    • 2
  • Carrie Kovarik
    • 3
  • Misha Rosenbach
    • 4
  1. 1.New York Presbyterian HospitalColumbia University Medical CenterNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.University of California, San FranciscoSan FranciscoUSA
  3. 3.Dermatopathology, and Infectious DiseasesUniversity of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA
  4. 4.University of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA

Personalised recommendations