• Marc E. Grossman
  • Lindy P. Fox
  • Carrie Kovarik
  • Misha Rosenbach


Reactivation of Chagas’ disease (American trypanosomiasis) in immunocompromised hosts presents as a constellation of symptoms and may include skin signs.1 Patients with Chagas’ cardiomyopathy who have undergone cardiac transplantation experience Chagas’ disease reactivation 28.8–33.8% of the time within weeks to 3 months of initiating immunosuppressive therapy.2,3 Reactivation Chagas’ disease may present with fever, heart failure, myocarditis, and painful skin lesions.


Human Immunodeficiency Virus Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Visceral Leishmaniasis Acquire Immune Deficiency Syndrome Cutaneous Leishmaniasis 
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Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas’ Disease)

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marc E. Grossman
    • 1
  • Lindy P. Fox
    • 2
  • Carrie Kovarik
    • 3
  • Misha Rosenbach
    • 4
  1. 1.New York Presbyterian HospitalColumbia University Medical CenterNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.University of California, San FranciscoSan FranciscoUSA
  3. 3.Dermatopathology, and Infectious DiseasesUniversity of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA
  4. 4.University of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA

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