• Marc E. Grossman
  • Lindy P. Fox
  • Carrie Kovarik
  • Misha Rosenbach


Infections caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV) are exceedingly common. They are divided into primary and secondary (recurrent) forms, which are self-limited processes in normal hosts. The course of herpes simplex infection in immunocompromised patients may be atypical, indolent, difficult to diagnose, and respond poorly to therapy. Atypical infections in the immunocompromised patients include lesions of larger size, deeper, more invasive and painful, disabling ulcerations, satellite lesions, longer healing time, unusual locations, and atypical morphology. Untreated lesions may become deeply erosive and chronic with the development of extensive areas of necrosis and bacterial superinfection that may distort the initial appearance, resulting in misdiagnosis. Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection have more frequent, persistent, and severe recurrences of HSV, and are more likely to be resistant to standard antiviral medications. Lesions may remain culture positive for HSV for extended periods of time with extensive tissue destruction.


Human Immunodeficiency Virus Herpes Simplex Virus West Nile Virus Herpes Zoster Graft Versus Host Disease 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marc E. Grossman
    • 1
  • Lindy P. Fox
    • 2
  • Carrie Kovarik
    • 3
  • Misha Rosenbach
    • 4
  1. 1.New York Presbyterian HospitalColumbia University Medical CenterNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.University of California, San FranciscoSan FranciscoUSA
  3. 3.Dermatopathology, and Infectious DiseasesUniversity of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA
  4. 4.University of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA

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