• Marc E. Grossman
  • Lindy P. Fox
  • Carrie Kovarik
  • Misha Rosenbach


Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease of worldwide distribution that shares a particularly strong association with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The incidence of primary and secondary syphilis decreased in the 1990s to 2.1 cases per 100,000 by the year 2000,1 perhaps in part due to high fatality rates in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients.2 However, by 2007, the incidence of syphilis increased to 3.3 cases per 100,000, almost exclusively in men, with 64% of all cases of early syphilis occurring in men who have sex with men.


Human Immunodeficiency Virus Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Acquire Immune Deficiency Syndrome Human Immunodeficiency Virus Disease Rapid Plasma Reagin 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marc E. Grossman
    • 1
  • Lindy P. Fox
    • 2
  • Carrie Kovarik
    • 3
  • Misha Rosenbach
    • 4
  1. 1.New York Presbyterian HospitalColumbia University Medical CenterNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.University of California, San FranciscoSan FranciscoUSA
  3. 3.Dermatopathology, and Infectious DiseasesUniversity of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA
  4. 4.University of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA

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