Impact of Forest Fragmentation on Ranging and Home Range of Siamang (Symphalangus syndactylus) and Agile Gibbons (Hylobates agilis)

  • Achmad Yanuar
  • David J. Chivers
Part of the Developments in Primatology: Progress and Prospects book series (DIPR)


Fragmentation always results in the reduction of forest area and isolation of forest remnants (Bierregaard et al. 1997). Primates are flexible animals in the usage of area and diet (Chapman 1988). The gibbon is one of the arboreal primates that persists in small forest fragments. Fortunately, gibbons that have small home ranges (Leighton 1987) may survive better in large, medium and small forest fragments, due to their ability to exploit young leaves, a food resource widely distributed in the forest (Kakati 2004). Many small-group animals with small home range are extremely tolerant to habitat changes, such as habitat fragmentation, because they are able to exploit leaves and have flexible home range size (Rylands and Keuroghlian 1988). Home range was initially defined as the area in which an animal spends most of its adult life (Burt 1943; Jewell 1966; Bates 1970). Thus, home range size and ranging patterns among primates may rely on social aspects and feeding behaviour strategies (Spironello 2001). The term home range is modified to specify a given period or duration of observation and, thus employed, to demonstrate changing patterns of range use over time (Harrison 1983). For a gibbon group, it can be defined as the total area traversed by the group within a given period (Gittins 1979).


Home Range Forest Fragment Home Range Size Continuous Forest Small Home Range 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



We would like to express our gratitude to Dr Ir Willie Smits and the Board Members of the Gibbon Foundation for their encouragement and financial support of this study. Thank you to Dr Kim McConkey for her comments on this paper. We would like to thank the Director-General of Nature Conservation, for sponsorship and support, who gave us permits to carry out this study in Kerinci-Seblat National Park and surrounds. Our thanks also to go to Dinas Kehutanan Solok District at Solok and Merangin District at Bangko, for helping us with permits to work in local protected forests within oil-palm plantations in South Solok and local gardens in Bangko. In the field, we also thank the Director and staff of oil-palm plantations, PT Tidar Kerinci Agung, PT Tidar Sungkai Sawit and PT Sumatra Jaya Agro Lestari for permission to work in their operational area and for use of their facilities. We would like to thank University of Andalas, Padang and Dr Wilson Noavarino for their help and co-operation and allowing us to use their students, and Pak Sudirman, Sahar, Jon, Hen, Pak Gadimel, Pak Muas and Rauh, who were our field assistants.


  1. Ahsan MF (1994) Behavioural ecology of the hoolock gibbon (Hylobates hoolock) in Bangladesh. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Cambridge, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahsan MF (2001) Socio-ecology of the hoolock gibbon (Hylobates hoolock) in two forests in Bangladesh. In: Chicago Zoological Society (eds) The Apes: challenges for the 21st century. Chicago Zoological Society, Brookfield, Illinois, pp 286-299Google Scholar
  3. Altmann SA, Altmann J (1970) Baboon ecology: African field research. University of Chicago, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  4. Altman J (1974) Observational study of behaviour: sampling methods. Behaviour 49:227–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bartlett TQ (1999) Feeding and ranging behavior of the white-handed gibbon (Hylobates lar) in Khao Yai National Park, Thailand. Ph.D. dissertation, University of WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  6. Bates BC (1970) Territorial behavior in primates: a review of recent field studies. Primates 11:271–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bierregaard RO Jr, Laurance WF, Sites JW Jr, Lynam AJ, Didham RK, Anderson M, Gascon C, Tocher MD, Smith AP, Viana VM, Lovejoy TE, Sieving KE, Kramer EA, Restrep C, Moritz C (1997) Key priorities for the study of fragmented tropical ecosystems. In: Laurance WF, Bierregaard RO Jr (eds) Tropical forest remnants ecology, management and conservation of fragmented community. The University of Chicago, Chicago, pp 515–525Google Scholar
  8. Burt WH (1943) Territoriality and home range concepts as applied to mammals. J Mammals 24:352–364Google Scholar
  9. Chalmers NR (1968) Group composition, ecology, and daily activities of free living mangabeys in Uganda. Folia Primatol 8:247–262PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chapman CA (1988) Patterns of foraging and range use by three species of neotropical primates. Primates 29:177–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chivers DJ (1969) On the daily behaviour and spacing of howler monkey groups. Folia Primatol 10:48–102PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chivers DJ (1974) The siamang in Malaya. Contrb Primatol 4:1–335Google Scholar
  13. Chivers DJ, Raemaekers JJ, Aldrich-Blake FPG (1975) Long-term observations of siamang behaviour. Folia Primatol 23:1–49PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Clutton-Brock TH (1975) Ranging behaviour of red colobus (Colobus badius tephrasceles) in the Gombe National Park. Anim Behav 23:706–722PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Clutton-Brock TH, Harvey PH (1977) Species difference in feeding and ranging behaviour in primates. In: Clutton-Brock TH (ed) Primate ecology: studies in feeding and ranging behaviour in lemurs, monkeys and apes. Academic, London, pp 557–584Google Scholar
  16. Decker BS (1994) Effects of habitat disturbance on the behavioural ecology and demographics of the Tana River red colobus (Colobus badius rufomitratus). Int J Primatol 15(5):703–734CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. DeVore I (1965) Primate behavior: field studies of monkeys and apes. Holf, Rinehart and Winston, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  18. deWilde WJJO, Duyfjes BEE (1996) Vegetation, floristic and plant bio-geography in Gunung Leuser National Park. In: van Schaik CP, Supriatna J (eds) Leuser: a Sumatran sanctuary. Yayasan Bina Sains Hayati Indonesia, Jakarta IndonesiaGoogle Scholar
  19. Eisenberg JF, Muckenhirn NA, Rudran R (1972) The relation between ecology and social structure in primates. Science 176:863–874PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fossey D, Harcourt AH (1977) Feeding ecology of free-living mountain gorillas (Gorilla gorilla beringei). In: Clutton-Brock TH (ed) Primate ecology: studies in feeding and ranging behaviour in lemurs, monkeys and apes. Academic, London, pp 415–447Google Scholar
  21. Freeland WY (1979) Mangabay (Cercocebus albigena) social organization and population density in relation to food use and availability. Folia Primatol 32:108–124PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gittins SP (1979) The behaviour and ecology of the agile gibbon (Hylobates agilis). Ph.D. dissertation, University of Cambridge, UKGoogle Scholar
  23. Gittins SP (1983) The use of the forest canopy by the agile gibbon. Folia Primatol 40:134–144PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Goodall J (1977) Infant killings and cannibalism in free-living chimpanzees. Folia Primatol 28:259–282PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Harrison MJS (1983) Patterns of range use by the green monkey, Cercopithecus sabaeus, at Mt Assirik, Senegal. Folia Primatol 41:682–694CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Iwamoto T, Dunbar RIM (1983) Thermoregulation, habitat quality, and behavioural ecology of gelada baboons. J Anim Ecol 52:357–366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Jewell PA (1966) The concept of home range in mammals. In: Symposia Zoological Society of London, vol 18, pp 85–109Google Scholar
  28. Johns AD (1983) Ecological effects of selective logging in a west Malaysian rain forest. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UKGoogle Scholar
  29. Kakati K (2004) Impact of forest fragmentation on the hoolock gibbon in Assam, India. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Cambridge, UKGoogle Scholar
  30. Kummer H (1968) Social organization of hamadryas baboons: a field study. Karger, BaselGoogle Scholar
  31. Leighton D (1987) Gibbons: territoriality and monogamy. In: Smuts BB, Cheney D, Seyfarth R, Wrangham R, Struhsaker T (eds) Primate societies. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp 135–145Google Scholar
  32. Marsh CW, Wilson WL (1981) A survey of primates in peninsular Malaysia forests final report for the Malaysian Primates Research Programme. Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia and University of Cambridge, UKGoogle Scholar
  33. Milton K, May ML (1976) Body weight, diet, and home range area in primates. Nature 259:459–462PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Nellemann C, Newton A (2003) The great apes - the road ahead. WCMC-UNEP, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  35. Nunes A (1995) Foraging and ranging patterns in white-bellied spider monkeys. Folia Primatol 65:85–99PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. O’Brien TG, Kinnaird MF, Nurcahyo A, Prasetianingrum M, Iqbal M (2003) Fire, demography and the persistence of siamang (Symphalangus syndactylus: Hylobatidae) in a Sumatran rainforest. Anim Conserv 6:115–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Palombit AR (1992) Pair bond and monogamy in wild siamang (Hylobates syndactylus) and white-handed gibbon (Hylobates lar) in northern Sumatra. Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, DavisGoogle Scholar
  38. Raemaekers JJ (1977) Gibbons and trees: comparative ecology of the siamang and lar gibbons. Ph.D. dissertation, University of CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  39. Raemaekers JJ (1979) Ecology of sympatric gibbons. Folia Primatol 31:227–245PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Rasmussen DR (1979) Correlates of patterns of range use of a sites, impregnable females, births, and male emigrations and immigrations. Anim Behav 27:1098–1112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Robinson JG, Redford KH (1986) Body size, diet and population density of neotropical forest mammals. Am Nat 128:665–680CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Rylands AB, Keuroghlian A (1988) Primate populations in continuous forest and forest fragments in central Amazonia. Acta Amazonica 18:291–307Google Scholar
  43. Schmidt-Nielsen K (1972) Locomotion: energy cost of swimming, flying, and running. Science 177:222–228PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Schoener TW (1971) Theory of feeding strategies. Ann Rev Ecol Syst 2:369–404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Spironello WR (2001) The brown capuchin monkey (Cebus paella): ecology and home range requirements in central Amazonia. In: Bierregaard RO, Gascon C, Lovejoy TE, Mesquita RCG (eds) Lessons from Amazonia. The ecology and conservation of a fragmented forest. Yale University Press, Conneticut, pp 271–289Google Scholar
  46. Struhsaker TT (1974) Correlates of ranging behaviour in a group of red colobus monkey (Colobus badius tephrosceles). Am Zool 14:177–184Google Scholar
  47. Struhsaker TT (1975) The red colobus monkey. Chicago University Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  48. Tutin CEG (1999) Fragmented living: behavioural ecology of primates in forest fragment in the Lopé Reserve, Gabon. Primates 40:240–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Whitmore TC (1975) Tropical rain forests of the far east. Clarendon, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  50. Whitten AJ (1984) Ecological comparisons between Kloss gibbons and other small gibbons. In: Preuschoft H, Chivers DJ, Brockelman WY, Creel N (eds) The lesser apes: evolutionary and behavioural biology. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, pp 219–227Google Scholar
  51. Wrangham WR (1977) Feeding behaviour of chimpanzees in Gombe National Park, Tanzania. In: Clutton Brock TH (ed) Primate ecology. Academic, London, pp 504–539Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Conservation International IndonesiaJakartaIndonesia

Personalised recommendations