Advertisement

Access to Family Planning and Induced Abortion

  • Julie Chor
  • Ashley Dyer
  • Bryna Harwood
Chapter

Abstract

Providing women with access to family planning – including contraception and abortion – is essential for primary prevention of maternal and infant morbidity and mortality. Given the relationship between unintended and unwanted pregnancies and adverse pregnancy outcomes, when women can safely avoid unintended pregnancies and unwanted births, maternal as well as infant morbidity and mortality is reduced (Mohllajee, Curtis, Morrow, & Marchbanks, 2007). Furthermore, because women of color bear a disproportionate burden of unintended pregnancy and maternal and infant morbidity and mortality, reducing rates of unintended pregnancy and increasing the proportion of pregnancies that are planned and wanted has potential to play a significant role in reducing racial/ethnic disparities in reproductive and perinatal outcomes (Berg, Chang, Callaghan, & Whitehead, 2003; Finer & Henshaw, 2006; Geller, Cox, Callaghan, & Berg, 2006; Jones, Darroch, & Henshaw, 2002).

Keywords

Family Planning Unintended Pregnancy Abortion Rate Family Planning Service Abortion Service 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Abma, J. C., Chandra, A., Mosher, W. D., Peterson, L. S., & Piccinino, L. J. (1997). Fertility, family planning, and women’s health: New data from the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth. Vital and Health Statistics, 23(19), 1–114.Google Scholar
  2. Almeling, R., Tews, L., & Dudley, S. (2000). Abortion training in U.S. obstetrics and gynecology residency programs, 1998. Family Planning Perspectives, 32(6), 268–320.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Ancel, P. Y., Lelong, N., Papiernik, E., Saurel-Cubizolles, M. J., & Kaminiski, M. (2004). History of induced abortion as a risk factor for preterm birth in European countries: Results of the EUROPOP survey. Human Reproduction, 19(3), 734–740.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Atrash, H., Jack, B. W., Johnson, K., Coonrod, D. V., Moos, M. K., & Stubblefield, P. G., et al. (2008). Where is the “W”oman in MCH? American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 199(6), S259-S265.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Berg, C. J., Chang, J., Callaghan, W. M., & Whitehead, S. J. (2003). Pregnancy-related mortality in the United States, 1991–1997. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 101(2), 289–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bitler, M., & Zavodny, M. (2001). The effect of abortion restrictions on the timing of abortions. Journal of Health Economics, 20, 1011–1032.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Blank, R. M., George, C. C., & London, R. A. (1996). State abortion rates the impact of policies, providers, politics, demographics, and economic environment. Journal of Health Economics, 15, 513–553.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Boonstra, H. D. (2007) The heart of the matter: Public funding of abortion for poor women in the United States. Guttmacher Policy Review, 10 (1). Retrieved on December 27, 2009 from http://www.guttmacher.org/pubs/gpr/10/1/gpr100112.html
  9. Bronstein, J. M., Vosel, A., George, S. K., Freeman, C., & Payne, L. A. (2007). Extending Medicaid coverage for family planning services: Alabama’s first four years. Public Health Reports, 122, 190–197PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Brown, J. S., Adera, T., Masho, S. W. (2008). Previous abortion and the risk of low birth weight and preterm births. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 62, 16–22.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Cates, W., Kimball, A. M., Gold, J., Rubin, G. L., Smith, J. C., & Rochat, R. W., et al. (1979). The health impact of restricting public funds for abortion October 10,1977-June 10, 1978. Public Health Briefs, 69 (9), 945–947.Google Scholar
  12. Chasen, S. T., Kalish, R. B., Gupta, M., Kaufman, J., & Chervenak, F. A. (2005). Obstetric outcomes after surgical abortion at ≥20 weeks’ gestation. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 193, 1161–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Chrissman, M., Moore, R., Mondy, L., Weber, B., Peter, W. P., Price, P. C., et al. (1980). Effects of restricting federal funds for abortion – Texas. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 29(2), 253–254.Google Scholar
  14. Contraceptive Coverage in the Federal Employees Health Benefits Program. (2003). Contraception Fact Sheets. Retrieved from http://reproductiverights.org/en/document/contraceptive-coverage-in-the-federal- employees-health-benefits-program
  15. Cook, P. J., Parnell, A. M., Moore, M. J., & Pagnini, D. (1999). The effects of short-term variation in abortion funding on pregnancy outcomes. Journal of Health Economics, 18(2), 241–57.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Culwell, K. R., & Feinglass, J. (2007). The association of health insurance with use of prescription contraceptives. Perspectives on Sexual & Reproductive Health, 39(4), 226–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Currie, J., Nixon, L., & Cole, N. (1996). Restrictions on Medicaid funding of abortion: Effects on birth weight and pregnancy resolutions. Journal of Human Resources, 31(1), 159–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dailard, C. (2004). Contraceptive coverage: A 10-year retrospective. The Guttmacher Report on Public Policy, 7, 6–9. Retrieved on December 27, 2009 from http://www.guttmacher.org/pubs/tgr/07/2/gr070206.html
  19. Daley, D., & Gold, R. B. (1993). Public funding of contraceptive, sterilization and abortion services, fiscal year 1992. Family Planning Perspectives, 25(6), 244–25.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Eastwood, K. L., Kacmar, J. E., Steinauer, J., Weitzen, S., & Boardman, L. (2006). Abortion training in United States obstetrics and gynecology residency programs. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 108(2), 303–308.Google Scholar
  21. Edwards, J., Bronstein, J., & Adams, K. (2003). Evaluation of Medicaid family planning demonstrations. Final report CNA evaluation of family planning demonstrations, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services.Google Scholar
  22. El-Bastawissi, A. Y., Sorensen, T. K., Akafomo, C. K., Frederick, I. O., Xiao, R., & Williams, M. A. (2003). History of fetal loss and other adverse pregnancy outcomes in relation to subsequent risk of preterm delivery. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 7(1) 53–58.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Finer, L. B., Frohwirth, L. F., Dauphinee, L. A., Singh, S., Moore, A.M. (2006). Timing of steps and reasons for delays in obtaining abortions in the United States. Contraception, 74(4), 334–44.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Finer, L. B., & Henshaw, S. (2006). Disparities in rates of unintended pregnancy in the United States, 1994 and 2001. Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, 38(2), 90–96.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Foster, D. G., Biggs, M. A., Amaral, G., Brindis, C., Navarro, S., & Bradsberry, M., et al. (2006). Estimates of pregnancies averted through California’s family planning waiver program in 2002. Perspectives on Sexual & Reproductive Health, 38(3), 126–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Foster, D. G., Jackson, R. A., Cosby, K., Weitz, T. A., Darney, P. D., & Drey, E. A. (2008). Predictors of delay in each step leading to an abortion. Contraception, 77(4), 289–93.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Foster, D. G. Rostovtseva, D. P. Brindis, C. D., Biggs, M. A. Hulett, D., & Darney, P. (2009). Cost savings from the provision of specific methods of contraception in a publicly funded program. American Journal of Public Health, 99(3), 446–51.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Frost, J. J. (1996). Family planning clinic services in the United States, 1994. Family Planning Perspectives, 28(3), 92–100.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Frost, J. J. Finer, L. B., & Tapales, A. (2008). The impact of publicly funded family planning clinic services on unintended pregnancies and government cost savings. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 19(3), 778–796.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Frost, J. J., Frohwirth, L., & Purcell, A. (2004). The availability and use of publicly funded family planning clinics: U.S. trends, 1994–2001. Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, 36(5), 206–15.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Frost, J. J., Ranjit, N., Manzella, K., Darroch, J. E., & Audam, S. (2001). Family planning clinic services in the United States: Patterns and trends in the late 1990s. Family Planning Perspectives, 33(3), 113–122CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Gawinski, B. A., Bennett, P. A., Rousseau, S. J., & Schaff, E. (2002). A biopsychosocial model of training in abortion care. Families, Systems, & Health, 20(4), 439–446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Geller, S. E., Cox, S. M., Callaghan, W. M., & Berg, C. J. (2006). Morbidity and mortality in pregnancy: Laying the groundwork for safe motherhood. Women’s Health Issues, 16(4), 176–188.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Geller, S. E., Rosenberg, D., Cox, S. M., Brown, M. L., Simonson, L., & Driscoll, C. A., et al. (2004). The continuum of maternal morbidity and mortality: Factors associated with severity. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 191(3), 939- 944.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Gold, R. B. (1980). After the Hyde amendment: Public funding for abortion in FY 1978. Family Planning Perspectives, 12(3), 131–134.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Gold, R. B. (2001). Title X: Three decades of accomplishment. The Guttmacher Report on Public Policy, 5–8.Google Scholar
  37. Gold, R. B. (2008). Breaking new ground: Ingenuity and innovation in Medicaid family planning expansions. Guttmacher Policy Review, 11(2).Google Scholar
  38. Gold, R. B. & Daley, D. (1991). Public funding of contraceptive, sterilization and abortion services,1990. Family Planning Perspectives, 23(5), 204–211.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Gold, R. B. & Guardado, S. (1988). Public funding of contraceptive, sterilization and abortion services, 1987. Family Planning Perspectives, 20(5), 228–233.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Gold, R. B. & Macias, J. (1986). Public funding of contraceptive, sterilization and abortion services, 1985. Family Planning Perspectives, 18(6), 259–264.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Gold, R. B. & Nestor, B. (1985). Public funding of contraceptive, sterilization and abortion services, 1983. Family Planning Perspectives, 17(1), 25–30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Gold, R. B., Richard, C. L. Ranji, U. R. & Salganicoff, A. (2007). Medicaid’s role in family planning. Retrieved from http://www.kff.org/womenshealth/7064.cfm
  43. Gold, R. B., Sonfield, A., Richards, C. L., & Frost, J. J. (2009). Next steps for America’s family planning program: Leveraging the potential of Medicaid and Title X in an evolving health care system. Retrieved fromhttp://www.guttmacher.org/pubs/summaries/NextStepsExec.pdf
  44. Goldberg, M. (2009). The great population panic, or fighting communism with contraception. The means of reproduction. New York: The Penguin Press.Google Scholar
  45. Guttmacher Institute, (2009b). Facts on Induced Abortion in the United States In Brief, http://www.guttmacher.org/pubs/fb_induced_abortion.html, accessed October 15, 2009.
  46. Gruber, J., Levine, P., & Staiger, D. (1999). Abortion legalization and child living circumstances: Who is the “marginal child”? Quarterly Journal of Economics, 114(1), 263–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Haas-Wilson, D. (1993). The economic impact of state restrictions on abortion: Parental consent and notification laws and Medicaid funding restrictions. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 12(3), 498–511.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Haas-Wilson, D. (1997). Women’s reproductive choices: The impact of Medicaid funding restrictions. Family Planning Perspectives, 29 (5), 228–233.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Henshaw, S. K. (1998). Unintended pregnancy in the United States. Family Planning Perspectives, 30(1), 24–29, 46.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Henshaw, S. K., & Finer, L. B. (2003). The accessibility of abortion services in the United States, 2001. Perspectives on Sexual & Reproductive Health, 35(1), 16–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Henshaw, S. K., Joyce, T. J., Dennis, A., Finer, L. B., & Blanchard, K. (2009). Restrictions on Medicaid funding for abortions: A literature review, New York: Guttmacher Institute, Retrieved from http://www.guttmacher.org/pubs/MedicaidLitReview.pdf
  52. Henshaw, S. K., & Wallisch, L. S. (1984). The Medicaid cutoff and abortion services for the poor. Family Planning Perspectives, 16 (4), 170–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hummer, R. A., Schmertmann, C. P., Eberstein, I. W., & Kelly, S. (1995). Retrospective reports of pregnancy wantedness and birth outcomes in the United States. Social Science Quarterly, 76(2), 401–418.Google Scholar
  54. Insurance Coverage of Contraceptives. (2009). State policies in brief, retrieved from http://www.guttmacher.org/statecenter/spibs/spib_ICC.pdf
  55. IOM (Institute of Medicine). (2009). A review of the HHS family planning program: Mission, management, and measurement of results. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.Google Scholar
  56. Jack, B. W., Atrash, H., Coonrod, D. V., Moos, M. K., O’Donnell, J., & Johnson, K. (2008). The clinical content of preconception care: An overview and preparation of this supplement. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 199(6), S266–S279.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Jones, R. K., Darroch, J. E., & Henshaw, S. K. (2002). Patterns in the socioeconomic characteristics of women obtaining abortions in 2000–2001. Perspectives on Sexual & Reproductive Health, 34(5), 226–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Jones, R. B., Kost, K., Singh, S., Henshaw, S. K., & Finer, L. B. (2009) Trends in abortion in the United States. Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology, 52(2), 119–129.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Joyce, T. (1987). The impact of induced-abortion on black-and-white birth outcomes in the United States. Demography, 24(2), 229–244.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Joyce, T., Corman, H., & Grossman, M. (1988). A cost-effectiveness analysis of strategies to reduce infant-mortality. Medical Care, 26(4), 348–360.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Joyce, T. J., & Grossman, M. (1990). Pregnancy wantedness and the early initiation of prenatal care. Demography, 27(1), 1–17.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Joyce, T., & Grossman, M. (1990). The dynamic relationship between low birthweight and induced abortion in New York City: An aggregate time-series analysis. Journal of Health Economics, 9(3), 273–288.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Joyce, T., & Kaestner, R. (1996). State reproductive policies and adolescent pregnancy resolution: The case of parental involvement laws. Journal of Health Economics, 15, 579– 607.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Kaiser Family Foundation. (2007). Women’s Health Insurance Coverage, Women’s Health Policy Facts. Retrieved from http://www.kff.org/womenshealth/upload/7064_03.pdf
  65. Kane, T. J., & Staiger, D. (1996). Teen motherhood and abortion access. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 111(2), 467–506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Kearney, M. K., & Levine, P. B. (2009). Subsidized contraception, fertility, and sexual behavior. Review of Economic & Statistics, 91(1), 1–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Klerman, L. V., Johnson, K. A., Chang, C. H., Wright-Slaughter, P., & Goodman,, D. C. (2007). Accessibility of family planning services: Impact of structural and organizational factors. Maternal & Child Health Journal, 11(1), 19–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Korenbrot, C. C., Brindis, C., & Priddy, F. (1990). Trends in rates of live births and abortions following state restrictions on public funding of abortion. Public Health Reports, 105(6), 555–562.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Levine, P. B., Trainor, A. B., & Zimmerman,, D. J. (1996). The effect of Medicaid abortion funding restrictions on abortions, pregnancies, and births. Journal of Health Economics, 15, 555–578.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Lindheim, B. L., & Cotterill, M. A. (1978). Training in induced-abortion by obstetrics and gynecology residency programs. Family Planning Perspectives, 10(1), 24–28.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Lindrooth, R. C., & McCullough, J. S. (2007). The effect of Medicaid family planning expansions on unplanned births. Women’s Health Issues, 17(2), 66–74.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Lundberg, S., & Plotnick, R. D. (1990). Effects of state welfare, abortion and family planning policies on premarital childbearing among white adolescents. Family Planning Perspectives, 22(6), 246–275.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Mackay, H. T., & Mackay, A. P. (1995). Abortion training in obstetrics and gynecology residency programs in the United States, 1991–1992. Family Planning Perspectives, 27(3), 112–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Mandelson, M. T., Maden, C. B., & Daling, J. R. (1992) Low birth weight in relation to multiple induced abortions. American Journal of Public Health, 82 (3), 391–394.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Medoff, M. H. (1988). An economic analysis of the demand for abortions. Economic Inquiry, 26(2), 353–359.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Meier, K. J., & Mcfarlane, D. R. (1994). State family planning and abortion expenditures: Their effect on public health. American Journal of Public Health, 84(9), 1468–1472.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Misra, D. P., & Grason, H. (2000). An intersection of women’s and perinatal health: The role of chronic conditions. Women’s Health Issues, 10(5), 256–267.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Mohllajee, A. P., Curtis, K. M., Morrow, B., & Marchbanks, P. A. (2007). Pregnancy intention and its relationship to birth and maternal outcomes. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 109(3), 678–86.Google Scholar
  79. Moreau, C., Kaminiski, M., Ancel, P. Y., Bouyer, J., Escande, B., Thiriez, G., et al. (2005). Previous induced abortions and the risk of very preterm delivery: Results of the EPIPAGE study. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 112, 430–437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Morgan, S. P., & Parnell, A. M. (2002). Effects on pregnancy outcomes of changes in the North Carolina state abortion fund. Population Research and Policy Review, 21, 319–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Mosher, W., Martinez, G., Chandra, A., Abma, J., & Willson, S. Use of contraception and use of family planning services in the United States: 1982–2002. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics; December 10 2004. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/ad/ad350FactSheet.pdf
  82. Nearns, J. (2009). Health insurance coverage and prescription contraceptive use among young women at risk for unintended pregnancy. Contraception, 79(2), 105–10.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Nestor, B., & Gold, R. B. (1984). Public funding of contraceptive, sterilization and abortion services, 1982. Family Planning Perspectives, 16(3), 128–133.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. New, M. J. (2007). Analyzing the effect of state legislation on the incidence of abortion among minors. The Heritage Foundation: Washington, D.C. Retrieved from http://www.heritage.org/Research/Family/CDA07–01.cfm
  85. Nixon, R. Special Message to the Congress on Problems of Population Growth. President Richard Nixon, July 18, 1969. The Nixon Foundation and Library. Retrieved from http://www.nixonlibraryfoundation.org/clientuploads/directory/archive/1969_pdf_files/1969_0271.pdf
  86. Ranjit, N., Bankole, A., Darroch, J. E., & Singh, S. (2001). Contraceptive failure in the first two years of use: Differences across socioeconomic subgroups. Family Planning Perspectives, 33(1), 19–27.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Rubin,, G. L., Gold, J., & Cates,, W. (1979). Response of low income women and abortion facilities to restriction of public funds for abortion: A study of a large metropolitan area. American Journal of Public Health, 69(9), 948–950.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Shah, P. S., & Zao, J. (2009) Induced termination of pregnancy and a low birth weight and preterm birth: A systemic review and meta-analyses. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 116, 1425–1442.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Singh, S. (1986). Adolescent pregnancy in the United States: An interstate analysis. Family Planning Perspectives, 18(5), 210–220.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Singh, S., Darroch, J. E., Ashford, L. S., & Vlassoff, M. (2009). Adding it up: The costs and benefits of investing in family planning and maternal and newborn health. New York: Guttmacher Institute and United Nations Population Fund. Retrieved from: http://www.unfpa.org/webdav/site/global/shared/documents/publications/2009/adding_it_up_report.pdf Google Scholar
  91. Sollom, T., Gold, R. B., & Saul, R. (1996). Public funding of contraceptive, sterilization and abortion services, fiscal year 1994. Family Planning Perspectives, 28(4), 166–173.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Sonfield, A. (2003). Preventing unintended pregnancy: The need and the means. The Guttmacher Report on Public Policy 6. Retrieved from http://www.guttmacher.org/pubs/tgr/06/5/gr060507.html
  93. Sonfield, A., Alrich, C., & Gold, R. B. (2008). Public funding of contraceptive, sterilization and abortion services, FY 1980–2006. Occasional Report, New York: Guttmacher Institute, 38. Retrived from http://www.guttmacher.org/pubs/2008/01/28/or38.pdf Google Scholar
  94. Sonfield, A., Gold, R. B., Frost, J. J., & Darroch, J. E. (2004). U.S. Insurance Coverage of Contraceptives and the Impact of Contraceptive Coverage Mandates, 2002. Perspectives on Sexual & Reproductive Health, 36(2), 72–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Sonnenberg, F., Burkman, R., Hagerty, C., Speroff, L., & Speroff, T. (2004). Costs and net health effects of contraceptive methods. Contraception, 69, 447–459.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. State Funding of Abortion Under Medicaid. (2009). Guttmacher Institute. Retrieved on July 1, 2009 from http://www.guttmacher.org/statecenter/spibs/spib_SFAM.pdf
  97. Steinauer, J., Depineres, T., Robert, A., Westfall, J., & Darney, P. D. (1997). Training family practice residents in abortion and other reproductive health care: A nationwide survey. Family Planning Perspectives, 29(5), 222–227.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Steinauer, J. E., Landy, U. P., Jackson, R. A., & Darney, P. D. (2003). The effect of training on the provision of elective abortion: A survey of five residency programs. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, 188(5), 1161–1163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Strauss, L., Gamble, S., Parker, W., Cook, D., Zane, S., & Hamdan, S. (2007). Abortion surveillance – United States, 2004. MMWR Surveillance Summaries 53, 1–33. Retrieved on December 28, 2009 from http://www.cdc.gov/mmWR/preview/mmwrhtml/ss5609a1.htm
  100. Swingle, H. M., Colaizy, T. T., Zimmerman, M. B., & Morriss, F. H. (2009) Abortion and the risk of subsequent preterm birth, a systematic review with meta-analyses. Journal of Reproductive Medicine, 54, 95–108.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. The growth of U.S. population: Analysis of the problems and recommendations for research, training, and service. (1965) National Academy of Sciences – National Research Council Committee on Population, Washington, DC. Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?id=cjErAAAAYAAJ&dq=The+growth+of+U.S.+population:+analysis+of+the+problems+and+recommendations+for+research,&printsec=frontcover&source=bl&ots=kJXFubsyqJ&sig=pQ9yQ_M3575iTGyMafXU97ojqDw&hl=en&ei=ZNBES7mPB438MeSAsYgH&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved= 0CBEQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=&f=falseGoogle Scholar
  102. Tietze, C. (1975). Effect of legalization of abortion on population-growth and public-health. Family Planning Perspectives, 7(3), 123–127.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Trends in Abortion in the United States, 1973–2005. (2008). Retrieved July 2, 2009, from http://www.alanguttmacherinstitute.org/presentations/trends.html
  104. Trussell, J. (2007). The cost of unintended pregnancy in the United States. Contraception, 75(3), 168–170.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Trussell, J., Leveque, J. A., Koenig, J. D., London, R., Borden, S., Henneberry, J., et al. (1995). The economic value of contraception: A comparison of 15 methods. American Journal of Public Health, 85(4), 494–503.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Trussell, J., Menken, J., Lindheim, B. L., & Vaughan, B. (1980). The impact of restricting Medicaid financing for abortion. Family Planning Perspectives, 12(3), 120–130.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Vital Statistics of the United States, 1965 (1967). National Center for Health Statistics, U.S. Government Printing Office. Vol II – Mortality, Part A.Google Scholar
  108. Vital Statistics of the United States, 1966 (1968). National Center for Health Statistics, U.S. Government Printing Office. Vol II – Mortality, Part A.Google Scholar
  109. Vital Statistics of the United States, 1967 (1969). National Center for Health Statistics, U.S. Government Printing Office. Vol II – Mortality, Part A.Google Scholar
  110. Wetstein, M. E. (1995). The abortion rate paradox: The impact of national policy change on abortion rates. Social Science Quarterly, 76(3), 607–618.Google Scholar
  111. Who Decides? The Status of Women’s Reproductive Rights in the United States. (2009). In Your State. Retrieved on July 2, 2009 from http://www.prochoiceamerica.org/choice-action-center/in_your_state/who-decides/state-profiles/california.html?templateName=lawdetails&issueID=11&ssumID=2489
  112. Wu, J., Meldrum, S., Dozier, A., Stanwood, N., & Fiscella, D. (2008). Contraceptive nonuse among US women at risk for unplanned pregnancy. Contraception, 78, 284–289.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer US 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and GynecologyUniversity of IllinoisChicagoUSA

Personalised recommendations