Information Bias

  • Jørn Olsen
  • Kaare Christensen
  • Jeff Murray
  • Anders Ekbom
Part of the Springer Series on Epidemiology and Public Health book series (SSEH, volume 1)


Most studies are based on data that are recorded with some errors. We may be able to record gender precisely, birth weight with some errors, birth length with more errors, past occupational exposures with even more uncertainties, not to mention long-term dietary habits or use of mobile phones years ago. Sometimes diseases are diagnosed by their symptoms only, like depression. Sometimes there may be objective signs, as for hypertension. In clinical practice, there will often be some disagreement between groups of clinical experts when making diagnoses.


Mobile Phone Clinical Expert False Positive Case Objective Sign Birth Length 


  1. 1.
    Olsen J. Screening for karcinogene stoffer i arbejdsmiljøet. Kommentar (In Danish) Ugeskr Læger 1978;140(51):3248–3249.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Greenland S. Confounding and misclassification. Am J Epidemiol 1985;122:495–506.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jørn Olsen
    • 1
  • Kaare Christensen
    • 2
  • Jeff Murray
    • 3
  • Anders Ekbom
    • 4
  1. 1.School of Public HealthUniversity of California, Los AngelesLos AngelesUSA
  2. 2.Institute of Public HealthUniversity of Southern DenmarkOdense CDenmark
  3. 3.Department of Pediatrics, 2182 MedLabsUniversity of IowaIowa CityUSA
  4. 4.Department of MedicineKarolinska InstitutetStockholmSweden

Personalised recommendations