Spatial Organization: The Geographer’s View of the World.


Systemic Lupus Erythematosus British Medical Journal Stochastic Resonance Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Residential Segregation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abler, R., Adams, J., Gould, P.: Spatial Organization: The Geographer’s View of the World. Prentice Hall: Englewood Cliffs (1971).Google Scholar
  2. Adami, C., Cerf, N.: Physical complexity of symbolic sequences, Physica D, 137:62-69 (2000).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Adami, C., Ofria, C., Collier, T.: Evolution of biological complexity, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 97:4463-4468 (2000).Google Scholar
  4. Ahlborg, A., Ljung, T., Rosmond, R., McEwen, B., Holm, G., Akesson, H., Bjorntorp P.: Depression and Anxiety symptoms in relation to anthropometry and metabolism in men. Psychiatry Research, 112:101-110 (2002).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Albert R., Barabasi, A.: Statistical mechanics of complex networks, Reviews of Modern Physics, 74:47-97 (2002).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Allan, J.: Explanatory models of overweight among African American, Euro-American, and Mexican American women, Western Journal of Nursing Research, 20:45-66, (1998).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Andersen, H.R. et al. (27 other authors): Comparison of short-term Estrogenicity tests for identification of hormone-disrupting chemicals, Environmental Health Perspectives, 107 (supp): 89-108 (1999).Google Scholar
  8. Annesi-Maesan, I., Moreau, D., Strachan, D.: In utero and perinatal complications preceding asthma. Allergy, 56:491-497 (2001).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Antonijevic, I., Murck, H., Frieboes, R., Horn, R., Brabant, G., Steiger, A.: Elevated nocturnal profiles Of serum leptin in patients with depression. Psychiatric Research, 32:403-410 (1998).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ash R.: Information Theory. Dover Publications, New York (1990).Google Scholar
  11. Atlan, H., Cohen, I.: Immune information, self-organization, and meaning. International Immunology 10:711-717 (1998).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Atmanspacher, H.: Toward an information theoretical implementation of contextual conditions for consciousness. Acta Biotheoretica 54:157-160 (2006).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Avital, E., Jablonka, E.,: Animal Traditions: behavioral inheritance in evolution, Cambridge University Press, UK (2000).Google Scholar
  14. Baars, B.: A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness. Cambridge University Press, New York (1988).Google Scholar
  15. Baars, B.: Global workspace theory of consciousness: toward a cognitive neuroscience of human experience. Progress in Brain Research 150:45-53 (2005).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Backdahl, L., Bushell, A., Beck, S.: Inflammatory signalling as mediator of epigenetic modulation in tissue-specific chronic inflammation. The International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, doi:10.1016/j.biocel.2008.08.023 (2009).Google Scholar
  17. Bailey, N.: The Mathematical Theory of Infectious Diseases and its Applications. Hafner: New York (1975).Google Scholar
  18. Balkwill, F., Mantovani, A.: Inflammatory and cancer: back to Virchow?, The Lancet, 357:539-545 (2001).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bandelow, B., Spath, C., Tichauer,G., Broocks, A., Hajak, G., Ruther, E.: Early traumatic life events, parental attitudes, family history, and birth risk factors in patients with panic disorder, Comprehensive Psychiatry, 43:269-278 (2002).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Barker, D.: Fetal programming of coronary heart disease, Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism, 13:364-372 (2002).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Barker D., Forsen, T., Uutela, A., Osmond, C., Erikson, J.: Size at birth and resilience to effects of poor living conditions in adult life: longitudinal study, British Medical Journal, 323:1261-1262 (2002).Google Scholar
  22. Barkow J., Cosmides L., Tooby, J. eds.: The Adapted Mind: Biological Approaches to Mind and Culture, University of Toronto Press (1992).Google Scholar
  23. Barnett, E., Halverson, J.: Disparities in premature coronary heart disease mortality by region and urbanicity among black and white adults ages 35-64, 1985-1995, Public Health Reports, 115:52-64 (2000).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Baverstock, K.: Radiation-induced genomic instability: a paradigm-breaking phenomenon and its relevance to environmentally induced cancer, Mutation Research, 454:89-109 (2000).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Beck C., Schlogl, F.: Thermodynamics of Chaotic Systems. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK (1995).Google Scholar
  26. Bennett, M., Hacker, P.: Philosophical Foundations of Neuroscience. Black-well Publishing (2003).Google Scholar
  27. Bennett, C.: Logical depth and physical complexity. In The Universal Turing Machine: A Half-Century Survey, R. Herkin (ed.), pp. 227-257, Oxford University Press (1988).Google Scholar
  28. Ben-Tovin, D., Dougherty, M., Stapelton, A., Pinnock C.: Coping with prostate cancer: a Quantitative analysis using a new instrument, the center for clinical excellence in Urological research coping with cancer instrument, Urology 59:383-388 (2002).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Bertram, J.: The molecular biology of cancer, Molecular Aspects of Medicine, 21:167-223 (2001).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Bigsby, R., Chapin R., Daston G., Davis B., Gorski J., Gray L., Howdeshell K., Zoeller R., Vom Saal F.: Evaluating the effects of endocrine disruptors on Endocrine function during development. Environmental Health Perspectives, 107(supp 4):613-618 (1999).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Binney J., Dowrick, N., Fisher, A., Newman, M.: The theory of critical phenomena, Clarendon Press, Oxford, UK (1986).Google Scholar
  32. Bjorntorp P.: Do stress reactions cause abdominal obesity and comorbidities?, Obesity Reviews, 2:73-86 (2001).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Blake, G., Ridker, P.: Inflammatory bio-markers and cardiovascular risk prediction, Journal of Internal Medicine, 252:283-294 (2001).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Blake, G., Ridker P.: Inflammatory mechanisms in atherosclerosis, Italian Heart Journal, 2:796-800 (2001).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Bongu, A., Chang, E., Ramsey-Goldman, R.: Can morbidity and mortality in SLE be improved? Best Practice and Research in Clinical Rheumatology 16:313-332 (2002).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Bonner J.: The evolution of culture in animals, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ (1980).Google Scholar
  37. Bootsma, D., Hoeijmakers, J.:DNA repair: engagement with transcription, (news: comment), Nature, 363:114-115 (1993).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Bornstein, S., Licinio, J., Tauchnitz, R., Engelmann, L., Negrao, A., Gould, P., Chrousos, G.: Plasma leptin levels are increased in survivors of acute sepsis: associated loss of diurnal rhythm, in cortisol and leptin secretion, Journal of Clinical Endicrinolgy and Metabolism, 83:280-283 (1998).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Bos, R.: Continuous representations of groupoids. arXiv:math/0612639 (2007).Google Scholar
  40. Bosma, H., Marmot, M., Hemingway, H., Nicholson, A., Brunner, E., Stansfeld, S: Low job control and risk of coronary heart disease in Whitehall II (prospective cohort) study, British Medical Journal, 314:558-565 (1997).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Bosma, H., Stansfeld, S., Marmot, M.: Job control, personal characteristics, and heart disease, Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 3:402-409 (1998).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Bosma, H., Peter, R., Siegrist, J., Marmot, M.: Two alternative job stress models and the risk of coronary heart disease, American Journal of Public Health, 88:68-74 (2001).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Bossdorf, O., Richards, C., and Pigliucci, M.: Epigenetics for ecologists. Ecology Letters 11: 106-115 (2008).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Braiman Y., Linder J., Ditto, W.: Taming spatiotemporal chaos with disorder Nature, 378:465-469 (1995).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Britten, R., Davidson, E.: Gene regulation for higher cells: a theory. Science 165:349-357 (1969).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Brooks, A., Byrd, R., Weitzman, M., Auinger, P., McBride, J.: Impact of low birth weight on early childhood asthma in the United States. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, 155:401-406 (2001).Google Scholar
  47. Brown, R.: From groups to groupoids: a brief survey. Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society 19:113-134 (1987).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Brunner, E., Marmot, M., Nanchahal, K., Shipley, M., Stansfeld, S., Juneja M., Alberti, K.: Social inequality in coronary risk: central obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Evidence from the Whitehall II study, Diabetologia, 40:1341-1349, (1997).Google Scholar
  49. Brunner, E. et al., (16 authors): Adrenocortical, autonomic, and inflammatory causes of the Metabolic syndrome: nested case-control study. Circulation, 106:2659-2665 (2002).Google Scholar
  50. Bullo, M., Garcia-Lorda, P., Megias, I., Salas-Salvado, J.: Systemic inflammation, adipose tissue tumor necrosis factor, and leptin expression. Obesity Research, 11:525.531 (2003).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Buneci, M.: Representare de Groupoizi. Editura Mirton, Timisoara (2003).Google Scholar
  52. Bungum, T., Satterwhite, M., Jackson, A., Morrow, J. Jr.: The relationship of body mass index, medical costs, and job absenteeism. American Journal of Health Behavior, 27:456-462 (2003).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Bursik, R.: Delinquency rates as sources of ecological change. In:The Social Ecology of Crime (Byrne, J., Sampson, R., eds.) Springer-Verlag, New York (1986).Google Scholar
  54. Cannas Da Silva, A.,Weinstein A.: Geometric Models for Noncommutative Algebras. American Mathematical Society, RI (1999).Google Scholar
  55. Carr W., Zeitel, L., Weiss, K.: Variations in asthma hospitalizations and deaths in New York City, American Journal of Public Health 82:59-65 (1992).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Casanueva, F., Dieguez, C.: Neuroendocrine regulation and actions of leptin. Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology, 20:317-363 (1999).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Caswell H.: Matrix Population Models, Aldine (2001).Google Scholar
  58. Cayron, C.: Groupoid of orentational variants, Acta Crystallographica A, A62:21-40 (2006).Google Scholar
  59. Cayron, C.,: Multiple twinning in cubic crystals: geometric/algebraic study and its application for the identification of the Σ3n grain boundaries, Acta Crystallographica A, A63:11-29 (2007).Google Scholar
  60. CDC, Centers for Disease Control: Asthma mortality and hospitalization among children and young adults – United States, 1980-93. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 45:350-353 (1996).Google Scholar
  61. CDC: 1991-2001 Prevalence of Obesity Among US Adults, by Characteristics: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (1991-2001); Self-reported data, (2003).
  62. Chrousos, G.: The role of stress and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome: neuro-endocrine and target tissue-related causes, International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, Suppl. 2:S50-S55, (2000).Google Scholar
  63. Ciliberti, S., Martin, O., Wagner, A.: Robustness can evolve gradually in complex regulatory networks with varying topology. PLoS Computational Biology 3(2):e15 (2007).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Ciliberti, S., Martin, O.,Wagner, A.: Innovation and robustness in complex regulatory gene networks. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104:13591-13596 (2007).Google Scholar
  65. Cliff, A., Haggett, P., Ord, J.: Spatial Diffusion: An Historical Geography of Epidemics in an Island Community. Cambridge University Press, New York (1981).Google Scholar
  66. Clougherty, J., Levy, J., Kubzansky, L., Ryan, P., Suglia, S., Canner, M., Wright, R.: Synergistic effects of traffic-related air pollution and exposure to violence on urban asthma etiology. Environmental Health Perspectives, 115:1140-1146 (2007).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Cohen I.: The cognitive principle challenges clonal selection, Immunology Today, 13:441-444 (1992).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Cohen I.: Tending Adam’s Garden: Evolving the Cognitive Immune Self, Academic Press, New York (2000).Google Scholar
  69. Cohen, I.: Immune system computation and the immunological homunculus. In Nierstrasz, O., Whittle, J., Harel, D., Reggio, G., (eds.), MoDELS 2006, LNCS, vol. 4199, pp. 499-512, Springer, Heidelberg (2006).Google Scholar
  70. Cohen, I., Harel, D.: Explaining a complex living system: dynamics, multiscaling, and emergence. Journal of the Royal Society: Interface 4:175-182 (2007).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Collins, C., Williams, D.: Examining the black-white adult mortality: the role of residential segregation, for 25th Public Health Conf. on Records and Statistics and the National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics 45th Anniversary Symp., July 17-19, 1996, Washington DC, (1996).Google Scholar
  72. Collins, J. Jr., Schulte, N., Drolet, A.: Differnetial effect of ecological risk factors on the low Birthweight components of African-American, Mexican-American and non-Latino white infants in Chicago. Journal of the National Medical Association, 90:223-229 (1998a).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Collins, J. Jr., David, R., Symons, R., Handler, A., Wall, S., Andes, S.: African-American mother’s perception of their residential environment, stressful life events, and very low birthweight. Epidemiology, 9:286-289 (1998b).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Cooke D.: Psychopathic personality in different cultures: what do we know? Journal of Personality Disorders, 10:23-40 (1996).Google Scholar
  75. Cooper, R., Goldenberg, R., Das, A., Elder, N., Swain, M., Norman, G., Ramsey, R., Cotroneo, P., Collins, B., Johnson, F., Jones, P., Meier, A.: The preterm prediction study: maternal stress is associated with spontaneous preterm birth at less than thirty-five weeks’ gestation. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units Network. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 175:1286-1292 (1996).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Cooper, R.: Trends and disparities in coronary heart disease stroke, and other cardiovascular diseases in the United States: findings of the National Conference on Cardiovascular Disease, Circulation, 102:3137-3147 (2000).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Cooper, R.: Social inequality, ethnicity and cardiovascular disease, Int J Epidem., 30(Supp 1):S48-52 (2001).Google Scholar
  78. Coplan J., Altemus, M., Matthew, S., Smith, E., Scharf, B., Coplan, P., Kral, J., Gorman, J., Owens, M., Nemeroff, C., Rosenblum, L.: Synchronized maternal-infant elevations of primate CSF CRF concentrations in response to variable foraging demand, CNS Spectrums, 10:530-536 (2005).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Cosmides, L., Tooby, J.: Cognitive adaptations for social exchange. In The Adapted Mind: Evolutionary Psychology and the Generation of Culture, Oxford University Press, New York (1992).Google Scholar
  80. Coussens, L., and Werb, Z.: Inflammatory and Cancer, Nature, 420:860-867 (2002).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Cover, T., Thomas, J.: Elements of Information Theory. John Wiley and Sons, New York (1991).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Crews, D., and J. McLachlan, J.: Epigenetics, evolution, endocrine disruption, health, and disease. Endocrinology, 147:S4-S10 (2006).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Crews, D., Gore, A., Hsu, T., Dangleben, N., Spinetta, M., Schallert, T., Anway, M., Skinner, M.: Transgenerational epigenetic imprints on mate preference. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104:5942-5946 (2007).Google Scholar
  84. Cross, Benton: The roles of interleukin-6 and interleukin-10 in B cell hyper-activity in systematic lupus erythematosus, Inflammatory Research 48:255-261 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Crowther, N., Cameron, N., Trusler, J., Gray, I.: Association between poor glucose tolerance and rapid Postnatal weight gain in seven-year-old children. Diabetologia, 41:1163-1167 (1998).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Currie, E.: Reckoning, Hill and Wang (Farrar, Straus and Giroux), New York (1993).Google Scholar
  87. Dalgleish, A.: The relevance of non-linear mathematics (chaos theory) to the treatment of cancer, the role of the immune response and the potential for vaccines, Quarterly Journal of Medicine, 92:347-359 (1999).Google Scholar
  88. Dalgleish, A., O’Byrne, K.: Chronic immune activation and inflammation in the pathogenesis of AIDS and cancer, Advances in Cancer Research, 84:231-276 (2002).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Daly, M., Duncan, G., Kaplan, G., Lynch, J.: Macro-to-micro links in the relation Between income inequality and mortality. Milbank Qurterly, 76:315-339 (1998).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. De Groot, J., Ruis, M., Scholten, J., Koolhass, J., Boersma, W.: Long-term effects of social stress on antiviral immunity in pigs, Physiological Behavior, 73:145-158 (2001).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Dehaene, S., Naccache, L.: Towards a cognitive neuroscience of consciousness: basic evidence and a workspace framework. Cognition 79:1-37 (2001).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Del Rio, C., Barragen, M.: Pneumocystis pneumonia remains important cause of Morbidity and mortality among inner city patients. New England Journal of Medicine, 351:1262-1263 (2004).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Dembo, A., Zeitouni, O.: Large Deviations: Techniques and Applications, 2nd edition. Springer, New York (1998).Google Scholar
  94. DHPD (Department of Housing, Preservation, and Development): Summary of Housing, New York City 1996. New York City: DHPD. Available from The City Book Store and at the New York City government web site (1999).Google Scholar
  95. Dias, A., Stewart, I.: Symmetry groupoids and admissible vector fields for coupled cell networks, Journal of the London Mathematical Society 69:707-736 (2004).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Dimitrov A., Miller, J.: Neural coding and decoding: communication channels and quantization, Network: Computation in Neural Systems, 12:441-472 (2001).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Dretske, F.: The explanatory role of information. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A 349:59-70 (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Drucker, E., Alcabes, P., Bosworth, W., Sckell, B.: Childhood tuberculosis in the Bronx, New York. The Lancet, 343:1482-1485 (1995).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Du Clos, T.: Function of C-reactive protein, Annals of Medicine, 32:274-278 (2000).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Durham W.: Coevolution: Genes, Culture, and Human Diversity, Stanford University Press, Palo Alto, CA (1991).Google Scholar
  101. Duryea, P.: Press release dated Friday 27 January, 1978, Office of the New York State Assembly Republican Leader, Albany, NY. Copy available from R. Wallace, (1978).Google Scholar
  102. Egger, G., Swinburn, B., An ecological approach to the obesity pandemic. British Medical Journal 315:477-480 (1997).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Egle U., Hardt, J., Nickel, R., Kappis, B., Hoffmann, S.: Long-term effects of adverse childhood experiences – Actual evidence and needs for research, Zeitschrift fur Psychosomatische Medizin und Psychotherapie, 48:411-434 (2002).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Eliman, A., Knutsson, U., Gronnegard, M., Steirna, A., Albertsson-Wiklan, K., Marcus, C.: Variations in glucocorticoid levels within the physiological range affect plasma leptin levels, European Journal of Endocrinology, 139:615-620 (1998).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Eldredge N.: Time Frames: The Rethinking of Darwinian Evolution and the Theory of Punctuated Equilibria, Simon and Schuster, New York (1985).Google Scholar
  106. Emery, M.: Stochastic Calculus on Manifolds. Springer, New York (1989).Google Scholar
  107. English, T.: Evaluation of evolutionary and genetic optimizers: no free lunch. In Fogel, L, P. Angeline, and T. Back (eds.), Evolutionary Programming V: Proceedings of the Fifth Annual Conference on Evolutionary Programming, 163-169, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA (1996).Google Scholar
  108. Erdos, P., Renyi, A.: On the evolution of random graphs (1960). Reprinted in The Art of Counting, 1973, pp. 574-618 (1973), and in Selected Papers of Alfred Renyi, pp. 482-525 (1976).Google Scholar
  109. Eriksson, J., Forsen, T., Tuomilehto, J., Winter, P., Osmond, C., Barker, D.: Catch-up growth in childhood and death from coronary heart disease: longitudinal study. British Medical Journal, 318:427-431 (1999).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Eriksson J., Forsen, T., Tuomilehto, J., Osmond, C., Barker, D.: Fetal and childhood growth and hypertension in adult life, Hypertension, 36:790-794 (2000).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Evan, G., Littlewood, T.: A matter of life and cell death, Science, 281:1317-1322 (1998).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Evans, R., Barer, M., Marmor, T. (eds): Why Are Some People Healthy and Others Not?: The Determinants of Health of Populations, Aldine De Gruyter: New York (1994).Google Scholar
  113. Eyer, J.: Does unemployment cause the death rate peak in each business cycle? A multifactor model of death rate change, International Journal of Health Services, 7:625-662 (1977).Google Scholar
  114. Fagan, J., Wilkinson, D.: Guns, youth violence, and social identity. In: Youth Violence (Crime and Justice, 24), eds. Tonry, M., Moore, R., pp. 235-250 (1999).Google Scholar
  115. Fang, J., Madhavan, S., Bosworth, W., Alderman, M.: Residential segregation and mortality in New York City, Social Science and Medicine, 47:469-476 (1998).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Fichtner, K.: Non-space-group symmetry in crystallography, Computers and Mathematics with Applications, B, 12:751-762 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Ficici, S.,Milnik, O., Pollak, J.: A game-theoretic and dynamical systems analysis of selection methods in coevolution. IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation 9:580-602 (2005).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Fitz, D., Reiner, H., Plakensteiner, K., Rode, B.: 2007, Possible origins of biohomochirality, Current Chemical Biology, 1:41-52 (2007).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Feynman, R.: Lectures on Computation, Westview Press, New York (2000).Google Scholar
  120. Flegal, K., Carroll, M., Ogden, C., Johnson, C.: Prevalence and trends in obesity among US adults 1999-2000. Journal of the American Medical Association, 288:1723-1727 (2002).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Fleming R., Shoemaker, C.: Evaluating models for spruce budworm-forest management: comparing output with regional field data, Ecological Applications, 2:460-477 (1992).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Fodor J.: The Language of Thought, Corwell, New York, (1975).Google Scholar
  123. Foley, D., Craid, J., Morley, R., Olsson, C., Dwyer, T.,Smith, K., Saffery, R.: Prospects for epigenetic epidemiology. American Journal of Epidemiology 169:389-400 (2009).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Fontainer, K., Redden, D., Wang, C., Westfall, A., Allison, D.: 2003. Years of life lost to obesity. Journal of the American Medical Association, 289:187-193 (2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Forlenza M., Baum, A.: Psychosocial influences on cancer progression: alternative cellular and molecular mechanisms, Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 13:639-645 (2000).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Fried, S., Ricci, M., Russell, C., Laferrere, B.: Regulation of leptin production in humans, Journal of Nutrition, 130:3127-3131 (2000).Google Scholar
  127. Fullilove, M.: Root Shock: Upheaval, Resettlement and Recovery in Urban America, Random House, New York, (2004).Google Scholar
  128. Fullilove, M., Fullilove, R.: Intersecting epidemics: black teen crack use and sexually transmitted disease. Journal of the American Medical Association, 44:146-153 (1989).Google Scholar
  129. Galea, S., Ahern, J., Vlahov, D., Coffin, P., Fuller, C., Leon, A., Tardiff, K.: Income distibution and risk of fatal drug overdose in New York City neighborhoods, Drug and Alcohol Dependency, 70:139-148 (2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Gallagher, R., Marbach, J., Raphael, K., Handte, J., Dohrenwend, B.: Myofascial face pain: seasonal variability in pain intensity and demoralization, Pain, 61:113-120 (1995).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Gammaitoni A., Hanggi P., Jung, P. and F. Marchesoni: Stochastic resonance, Reviews of Modern Physics, 70:223-287 (1998).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Geronimus A., Bound J., Waidmann T.: Poverty, time, and place: Variation in excess mortality across selected US populations, 1980-1990, Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 53:325-334 (1999).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Gilbert, P.: Evolutionary approaches to psychopathology: the role of natural defenses, Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 35:17-27 (2001).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Gilbert, S.: Mechanisms for the environmental regulation of gene expression: ecological aspects of animal development. Journal of Bioscience 30:65-74 (2001).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Ginsberg-Fellner F., Jagendorf, L., Carmel, H., Harris, T.: Overweight and obesity in preschool children in New York City, American Journal of Nutrition, 34:2236-2241 (1981).Google Scholar
  136. Giovambattista, A., Chisari, A., Gaillard, R., Spinedi, E.: Food intakeinduced leptin secretion modulates hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis response and hypothalamic Ob-Rb expression to insulin administration. Neuroendocrinology, 72:341-349 (2000).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Glazebrook, J.F., R.Wallace, R.: Small worlds and red queens in the global workspace: an information-theoretic approach. Cognitive Systems Research, 10:333-365 (2009).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Gleiser, M., Thorarinson, J., Walker, S.: Punctuated chirality, Origins of Life and Evolution of Biospheres, DOI 10.1007/s11084-008-9147-0 (2008).Google Scholar
  139. Godfrey, K., Barker, D.: Fetal programming and adult health, Public Health and Nutrition, 4:611-624 (2001).Google Scholar
  140. Golubitsky, M., Stewart, I.: Nonlinear dynamics and networks: the groupoid formalism. Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society 43:305-364 (2006).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Gong, G., Oakley-Girvan, I., Wu, A., Kolonel, L., John, E., West, D., Felberg, A., Ballagher, R., Whittemore A.: Segregaton analysis of prostate cancer in 1719 white, African-American and Asian-American families in the US and Canada, Cancer Causes and Control, 13:471-482 (2002).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Goran, M., Ball, G., Cruz, M.: Obesity and risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in Children and adolescents. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 88:1417-1427 (2003).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Goubault, E., Raussen M.: Dihomotopy as a tool in state space analysis. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 2286, April, 2002, 16-37, Springer, New York (2002).Google Scholar
  144. Goubault, E.: Some geometric perspectives on concurrency theory. Homology, Homotopy, and Applications 5:95-136 (2003).Google Scholar
  145. Gould, P.: The Slow Plague. Blackwell, London (1993).Google Scholar
  146. Gould, S.,: The Structure of Evolutionary Theory. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA (2002).Google Scholar
  147. Granovetter, M.: The strength of weak ties, American Journal of Sociology, 78:1360-1380 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Greenlund, K., Giles, W., Keenan, N., Croft, J., Casper, M., Matson-Koffman, D.: 1998. Prevalence of multiple cardiovascular disease risk factors among women in the United States,1992 and 1995: the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Women’s Health, 7:1125-1133 (1998).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Griscom, J.: The Sanitary Condition of the Laboring Population of New York, Arno Press, New York (1844, reprinted 1970).Google Scholar
  150. Grossi, G., Ahs, A., Lundberg, U.: Psychological correlates of salivary cortisol secretion among unemployed men and women, Integrated Physiology and Behavioral Science, 33:249-263 (1998).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Grossman, Z.: The concept of idiotypic network: deficient or premature? In: H. Atlan and IR Cohen, (eds.), Theories of Immune Networks, Springer Verlag, Berlin, p. 3852 (1989).Google Scholar
  152. Grossman, Z.: Contextual discrimination of antigens by the immune system: towards a unifying hypothesis, in: A. Perelson and G. Weisbch, (eds.) Theoretical and Experimental Insights into Immunology, Springer Verlag, p. 7189 (1992a).Google Scholar
  153. Grossman, Z.: International Journal of Neuroscience, 64:275 (1992b).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Grossman, Z.: Cellular tolerance as a dynamic state of the adaptable lymphocyte, Immunology Reviews, 133:45-73 (1993).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Grossman, Z.: Round 3, Seminars in Immunology, 12:313-318 (2000).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Gryazeva, A., Shurlygina, I., Verbitskaya, L., Mel’nikova, E., Kudryavtseva, N., Trufakin, V.: Changes in various measures of immune status in mice subject to social conflict, Neuroscience and Behavioral Physiology, 31:75-81 (2001).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Guerrero-Bosagna, C., Sabat, P., Valladares, L.: Environmental signaling and evolutionary change: can exposure of pregnant mammals to environmental estrogens lead to epigenetically induced evolutionary changes in embryos?. Evolution and Development 7:341-350 (2005).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Guinan, M.: Black communities’ belief in ‘AIDS as genocide’. A barrier to overcome for HIV prevention. Annals of Epidemiology, 3:193-195 (1993).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Gunderson, L.: Ecological resilience-in theory and application, Annual Reviews of Ecological Systematics, 31:425-439 (2000).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Harris, M.: Diabetes in America: epidemiology and scope of the problem. Diabetes Care, 21(suppl. 3):C11-C14 (1998).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Hartl, D., Clark, A.: Principles of Population Genetics, Sinaur Associates, Sunderland, MA, (1997).Google Scholar
  162. Heneghan, C., Chow, C., Collins, J., Imhoff, T., Lowen, S., Teich, M.: Information measures quantifying aperiodic stochastic resonance, Physical Review A, 54:2366-2377 (1996).Google Scholar
  163. Herberman R.: Principles of tumor immunology in Murphy, G., Lawrence, W., Lenhard, R. (eds.), American Cancer Society Textbook of Clinical Oncology, ACS, Second Edition, pp. 1-9, (1995).Google Scholar
  164. Herpertz, S., Sass H.: Emotional deficiency and psychopathy, Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 18:567-580 (2000).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Hershberg, U., Efroni, S.: The immune system and other cognitive systems, Complexity, 6:14-21 (2001).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. HHS (Health and Human Services): Health, United States, 1998, with Socioeconomic Status and Health Chartbook, Washington, D.C. (1998).Google Scholar
  167. Hill, J., Wyatt, H., Reed, G., Peters, J.: Obesity and the environment: where do we go from here? Science, 266:853-858, 2003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Hillemeier, M., Lynch, J., Harper, S., Raghunathan, T., Kaplan, G.: Relative or absolute standards for child poverty: a state-level analysis of infant and child mortality, American Journal of Public Health, 93:652-657 (2003).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Hilty C., Bruhlmann, P., Sprott, H., Gay, R., Michel, B., Gay, S., Neidhart, M.: Altered diurnal rhythm of prolactin in systemic sclerosis, Rheumatology 27:2160-2165 (2000).Google Scholar
  170. Hirsch, J.: Obesity: matter over mind? Cerebrum, 5:7-18 (2003).Google Scholar
  171. Hoffman-Goetz, L., Mills, S.: Cultural barriars to cancer screening among African American women: A critical review of the qualitative literature. Women’s Health, 3:183-201 (1997).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Holling, C.: Resilience and stability of ecological systems, Annual Reviews of Ecological Systematics, 4:1-23 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Holling, C.: Cross-scale morphology, geometry and dynamicsl of ecosystems. Ecological Monographs 41:1-50 (1992).Google Scholar
  174. Houseknecht, K., Baile, C., Matteri, R., Spurlock, M.: The biology of leptin: a review. Journal of Animal Science, 76:1405-1420 (1998).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Hunt, L., Chambers, C.: The Heroin Epidemics, Spectrum Publications (John Wiley and Sons), New York, (1976).Google Scholar
  176. Iqbal, J., Pompolo, S., Murakami, R., Clarke, I.: Localization of long-form leptin in the somatostatin-containing neurons in the sheep hypothalamus, Brain Res., 887:1-6 (2000).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Ives, A.: Measuring resilience in stochastic systems, Ecological Monographs, 65:217-233, (1995).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Jablonka, E., and Lamb, M.: Epigenetic Inheritance and Evolution: The Lamarckian Dimension. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK (1995).Google Scholar
  179. Jablonka, E., M. Lamb, M.: Epigenetic inheritance in evolution. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 11:159-183 (1998).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Jablonka, E.: Epigenetic epidemiology. International Journal of Epidemiology 33:929-935 (2004).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Jaeger, J., Surkova, S., Blagov, M., Janssens, H., Kosman, D., Kozlov, K., Manu, M., Myasnikova, E., Vanario-Alonso, C., Samsonova, M., Sharp, D., Reintiz, J.: Dynamic control of positional information in the early Drosophila embryo. Nature 430:368-371 (2004).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Jaenisch, R., A. Bird, A.: Epigenetic regulation of gene expression: how the genome integrates intrinsic and environmental signals. Nature Genetics Supplement 33:245-254 (2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Jones, I., Blackshaw, J.: An evolutionary approach to psychiatry, Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 34:8-13 (2000).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Kadtke, J., Bulsara, A.: Applied Nonlinear Dynamics and Stochastic Systems Near the Millenium, AIP Conference Proceedings, American Institute of Physics, New York (1997).Google Scholar
  185. Kane, G.: Inner city alcoholism: an ecological analysis and cross-cultural study. Human Services Press, New York, (1981).Google Scholar
  186. Kaplan, J., Adams, M., Clarkson, T., Manuck, S., Shively, C., Williams, J.: Psychosocial factors, sex differences, and atherosclerosis: lessons from animal models Psychosocial Medicine, 58:598-611 (1996).Google Scholar
  187. Karlsen, S., Nazroo, J.: Relation between racial discrimination, social class, and health among ethnic minority groups, American Journal of Public Health, 92:624-631 (2002).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Kastner, M.: Phase transitions and configuration space topology. ArXiv cond-mat/0703401 (2006).Google Scholar
  189. Kawachi, I., Kennedy, B., Lochner, K., Prothrow-Stith, D.: Social capital, income inequality, and mortality, Amer. J. Public Health, 87:1491-1498 (1997).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Khinchin, A.: Mathematical Foundations of Information Theory. Dover, New York (1957).Google Scholar
  191. Kiecolt-Glaser, J., McGuier, L., Robles, T., Glaser, R.: Emotions, morbidity, and mortality: new perspectives from psychoneuroimmunology, Annual Review of Psychology, 53:83-107 (2002).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Kimm, S., Obarzanek, E., Childhood obesity: a new pandemic of the new millennium. Pediatrics: 110:1003-1007 (2002).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Kivimaki, M., Leino-Arjas, P., Luukkonen, R., Riihimaki, H., Vahtera, J., Kirjonen, J.: Work stress and risk of cardiovascular mortality: prospective cohort study of industrial employees, British Medical Journal, 325:456-466 (2002).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Klemperer, W.: The steric courses of chemical reaction, Journal of the American Chemical Society, 95:380-396 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Krebs, P.: Models of cognition: neurological possibility does not indicate neurological plausibility. In Bara, B., L. Barsalou, Bucciarelli, M. (eds.). Proceedings of CogSci 2005, 1184-1189, Stresa, Italy. Available at (2005).
  196. Lalumiere, M., Harris, G., Rice, M.: Psychopathy and developmental instability, Evolution and Human Behavior, 22:75-92 (2001).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Landau, L., Lifshitz, E.: Statistical Physics, 3rd Edition, Part I. Elsevier, New York (2007).Google Scholar
  198. Latkin, C., Knowlton, A., Hoover D., Mandell, W.: Drug network characteristics as a predictor of cessation of drug use among adult injection drug users: a prospective study, American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 25:463-473 (1999).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Lechner O., Dietrich, H., Oliveria dos Santos, A., Wiegers, G., Schwarz S., Harbutz, M., Herold, M., Wick, G.: Altered circadian rhythms of the stress hormone and melatonin response in lupus-prone MLR/MP-fas(lpr) mice, Journal of Autoimmunity 14:325-333 (2000).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Lee, J.: Introduction to topological manifolds. Springer, New York (2000).Google Scholar
  201. Lewontin, R.: The Triple Helix: Gene, Organism and Environment. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA. 2000.Google Scholar
  202. Li, X., Howard, D., Stanton, B., Rachuba, L., Cross, S.: Distress symptoms among urban African American children and adolescents: a psychometric evaluation of the Checklist of Children’s Distress Symptoms. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, 152:569-577 (1998).Google Scholar
  203. Li, X., Standton, B., Feigelman, S.: Exposure to drug trafficking among urban, low-income African American children and adolescents. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, 153:161-168 (1999).Google Scholar
  204. Liang M., Mandl, L., Costenbader, K., Fox, E., Karlson, E.: Atherosclerotic vascular disease in systemic lupus erythematosus, Journal of the National Medical Association 94:813-819 (2002).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. Libbey P., Ridker, P., Maseri, A.: Inflammatory and atherosclerosis, Circulation, 105:1135-1143 (2002).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Lindsay, R., Cook, V., Hanson, R., Salbe, A., Tataranni, A., Knowler, W.: Early excess weight gain of children in the Pima Indian population. Pediatrics, 109:E33 (2002).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Link, B., Phelan, J.: Evaluating the fundamental cause explanation for social disparities in health, Bird, C., Conrad, P., and Fremont, A., eds. Handbook of Medical Sociology, Fifth ed. Prentice-Hall, New Jersey, (2000).Google Scholar
  208. Linker-Israeli M., Deans, R., Wallace, D., Prehn, J., Ozeri-Chen, T., Klinenberg, J.: Journal of Immunology, 147:117-123 (1991).Google Scholar
  209. Liteonjua, A., Carey V., Weiss S., Gold, D.: Race, Socioeconomic factors, and area of residence are associated with asthma prevalence, Pediatric Pulmonology, 28:394-401 (1999).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Lord, G., Matarese, G., Howard, J., Baker, R., Bloom, S., Lechler, R.: Leptin modulates the T-cell immune response and reverses starvation-induced immunosuppression, Nature, 394:897-901 (1998).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Lottenberg, S., Giannella-Neto, D., Derendorf, H., Rocha, M., Bosco, M., Bosco, A., Carvalho, S., Moretti, A., Lerario, A., Wajchenberg, B.: Effect of fat distribution on the pharmacokinetics of cortisol in obesity. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology Therapeutics, 36:501-505 (1998).Google Scholar
  212. Maas, W., Natschlager, T., Markram, H: Real-time computing without stable states: a new framework for neural computation based on perturbations. Neural Computation 14, 2531-2560 (2002).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Magnasco, M. Thaler, D.: Changing the pace of evolution, Physics Letters A, 221:287-292 (1996).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Marmot, M., Bosma, H., Hemingway, H., Brunner, E., Stansfeld, S.: Contribution of job control and other risk factors to social variations in coronary heart disease incidence, The Lancet, 350:235-239 (1997).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. Marmot, M., Fuhrer, G., Ettner, S., Marks, N., Bumpass, L., Ryff, C.: Contribution of psychosocial factors to socioeconomic differences in health. Milbank Quarterly, 76:403-448, (1998).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Massey, D.: American apartheid: segregation and the making of the underclass, American Journal of Sociology 96:329-357 (1990).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Massey, D., Denton, N.: American Apartheid, Harvard University Press (1992).Google Scholar
  218. Matsumoto, Y.: An Introduction to Morse Theory. American Mathematical Society, Providence, RI (2002).Google Scholar
  219. Maturana, H., F. Varela, F.: Autopoiesis and Cognition. Reidel Publishing Company, Dordrecht, Holland (1980).Google Scholar
  220. Maturana, H., F. Varela, F.: The Tree of Knowledge. Shambhala Publications, Boston, MA (1992).Google Scholar
  221. McCauly, J.: Chaos, Dynamics, and Fractals. Cambridge Nonlinear Science Series, Cambridge, UK (1994).Google Scholar
  222. McClintock, N., Luchinsky, D.: Glorious noise, The New Scientist, 161(2168):36-39 (1999).Google Scholar
  223. McCord C., Freeman H.: Excess mortality in Harlem, New England Journal of Medicine, 322:173-177 (1990).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. McFarland, W., Chen, S., Hsu, L., Schwarcz, S., Katz, M.: 2003. Low socioeconomic status is Associated with a higher rate of death in the era of highly active antiretroviral Therapy, San Francisco, Journal of Acquirred Immune Deficinecy Syndrome, 33:96-103 (2003).Google Scholar
  225. Mealey, L.: The sociobiology of sociopathy: an integrated evolutionary model, Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 18:523-599 (1995).Google Scholar
  226. Melman, S.: The War Economy of the United States, St. Martin’s Press, New York (1971).Google Scholar
  227. Melnik, T., Rhoades, S., Wales, K., Cowell, C., Wofle, W. 1998. Overweight school children in New York City:Prevalence estimates and characteristics. Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, 22:7-13 (1998).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. Miller, G., Chen, E.: Life stress and diminished expression of genes encoding glucocorticoid receptor and β 2-adrenergic receptor in children with asthma. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 103:5496-5501 (2006).Google Scholar
  229. Mjolsness, E., Sharp, D., Reinitz, J.: A connectionist model of development. Journal of Theoretical Biology 152:429-458 (1991).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. MMWR: Trends in death from systemic lupus erythematosus-United States, 1979-1998, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Reports 51:371-374 (2002).Google Scholar
  231. Mokdad, A., Serdula, M., Dietz, W., Bowman, B., Marks, J., Koplan, J.: The spread of the obesity epidemic in the United States, 1991-1998, Journal of the American Medical Association, 282:1519-1522, (1999).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. Mokdad, A., Serdula, M., Dietz, W., Bowman, B., Marks, J., Koplan, J.: The continuing epidemic of obesity in the United States. Journal of the American Medical Association, 284:1650-1651 (2000).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. Nakamura, K., Shimai, S., Kikuchi, S., Takahashi, H., Tanaka, M., Nakano, S., Motohashi, Y., Nakadaira, H., Yamamoto, M.: Increases in body mass index and waist circumference as outcomes of working overtime. Occupational Medicine (Lond), 48:169-173 (1998).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. NCCP: Low income children in the United States, (2003).
  235. NCHS, National Center for Health Statistics: Medical care for asthma increasing and changing, Public Health Reports 87:112 (1996).Google Scholar
  236. Neumark-Sztainer, D., Story, M., Falkner, N., Beuhring, T., Resnick, M.: Sociodemographic and personal characteristics of adolescents engaged in weight loss and weight/muscle gain behaviors: who is Doing what? Preventive Medicine, 28:40-50 (1999).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. Newcomer, J., Selke, G., Melson, H., Gross, J., Vogler, G., Dagogo-Jack, S.: Dose-dependent cortisol-induced increases in plasma leptin concentration in healthy humans. Archives of General Psychiatry, 55:995-1000 (1998).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. Nies, M., Vollman, M., Cook, T.: African Ameriocan women’s experiences with physical activity in their daily lives. Public Health Nursing, 16:23-21 (1999).Google Scholar
  239. Nisbett, R., Peng, K., Incheol, C., Norenzayan, A.: Culture and systems of thought: holistic vs. analytic cognition, Psychological Review, 108:291-310 (2001).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. Nourse, J.: An algebraic description of stereochemical correspondence, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 72:2385-2388 (1975).Google Scholar
  241. Nunney, L.: Lineage selection and the evolution of multistage carcinogenesis, Proceedings of the Royal Society, B, 266:493-498 (1999).Google Scholar
  242. Nyirenda M., Seckl J.: Intrauterine event and the programming of adulthood disease: the role of fetal glucocorticoid exposure, International Journal of Molecular Medicine, 2:607-614 (1998).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. O’Byrne, K., Dalgleish A.: Chronic immune activation and inflammation as the cause of malignancy, British Journal of Cancer, 85:473-483 (2001).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. O’Campo P., Xue X., Wang M., O’Brien Caughey M.: Neighborhood risk factors for low birthweight in Baltimore: a multilevel analysis, American Journal of Public Health, 87:1113-1118 (1997).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. Office of the Public Advocate: Food for Thought: How the Food Industry Can Help End Hunger in NYC. f or t hought.html(2003).
  246. Ofria, C., Adami, C., Collier, T.: Selective pressures on genomes in molecular evolution, Journal of Theoretical Biology, 222:477-483 (2003).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. Ogden, C., Troiano, R., Briefel, R., Kuczmarski, R., Flegal, K., Johnson, C.: Prevalence of overweight among preschool children in the United States, 1971-1994. Pediatrics, 99:E1 (1997).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. O’Nuallain, S.: Code and context in gene expression, cognition, and consciousness. Chapter 15 in Barbiere, M. (ed.), The Codes of Life: The Rules of Macroevolution. Springer, New York, pp. 347-356 (2008).Google Scholar
  249. O’Nuallain, S., and R. Strohman, R.: Genome and natural language: how far can the analogy be extended? In Witzany (ed.), Proceedings of Biosemiotics. Tartu University Press, Umweb, Finland (2007).Google Scholar
  250. Osmond, C., Barker D.: Environmental Health Perspectives, 108, Suppl. 3:545-553 (2000).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. Ostlin, P., Diderichsen, F.: Policy Learning Curve Series. Equity-Oriented National Strategy for Public Health in Sweden. A Case Study. WHO Europe: Brussels (2001).Google Scholar
  252. Pappas, G.: The Magic City, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY, (1989).Google Scholar
  253. Paris, J.: Personality disorders: a biopsychosocial model, Journal of Personality Disorders, 7:53-99 (1993).Google Scholar
  254. Parker, S., Davis K., Wingo P., Ries L., Health C.: Cancer statistics by race and ethnicity, Canadian Cancer Journal 48:31-49 (1998).Google Scholar
  255. Parks C., Cooper, G.: Explaining racial disparity in systemic lupus erythematosus: environmental and genetic risk factors in the Carolina lupus study, Abstracts of the AEP 12:502 (2002).Google Scholar
  256. Pattee, H.: Laws and constraints, symbols and languages, in C. Waddington (ed.) Towards a Theoretical Biology: Essays, Aldine-Atherton, Chicago (1972).Google Scholar
  257. Paul W.: Fundamental Immunology, 4th Edition, Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins, New York (1999).Google Scholar
  258. Perrotta, A., Jones, C., Braconi, F., Toribio, E., Stern P.: Out of Balance: The Housing Crisis from a Regional Perspective. The Regional Plan Association., (2004)
  259. Pettini, M.: Geometry and Topology in Hamiltonian Dynamics and Statistical Mechanics. Springer, New York (2007).Google Scholar
  260. Phillips, D.: Birthweight and the future development of diabetes: A review of the evidence, Diabetes Care, 21(supp. 2):150-155 (1998).Google Scholar
  261. Phillips, D., Fall, C., Cooper, C., Norman, R., Robinson, J., Owens, P.: 1999. Size at birth and plasma leptin concentrations in adult life. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, 23:1025-1029 (1999).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  262. Pielou, E.: Population and Community Ecology: Principles and Methods, Gordon and Beach, New York (1976).Google Scholar
  263. Pielou, E.: Mathematical Ecology, John Wiley and Sons, New York, (1977).Google Scholar
  264. Podolsky, S., Tauber, A.: The generation of diversity: Clonal selection theory and the rise of molecular biology, Harvard University Press (1997).Google Scholar
  265. Polednak, A.: Black-white differences in infant mortality in 38 SMSA, American Journal of Public Health, 81:1480-1482 (1991).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  266. Polednak, A.: Poverty, residential segregation, and black/white mortality ratios in urban areas, Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserviced, 4:363-373 (1993).Google Scholar
  267. Polednak, A.: Segregation, discrimination and mortality in US Blacks, Ethniciey and Disease, 6:99-108 (1996).Google Scholar
  268. Pratt, V.: Modeling concurrency with geometry. Proceedings of the 18th ACM SIGPLAN-SIGACT Symposium on Principles of Programming Languages, 311-322 (1991).Google Scholar
  269. Rajaram S., Vinson V.: African American women and diabetes: a sociocultural context, Health Care of the Poor and Underserved, 9:236-247 (1998).Google Scholar
  270. Rau, H., Elbert, T.: Psychophysiology of arterial baroreceptors and the etiology of hypertension, Biological Psychology, 57:179-201 (2001).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  271. Reinitz, J., Sharp, D.: Mechanisms of even stripe formation. Mechanics of Development 49, 133-158 (1995).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  272. Repetti, R.,Taylor, S., Seeman, T.: Risky families: family social environments and the mental and physical health of offspring, Psychological Bulletin, 128:330-366 (2002).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  273. Richerson, P., Boyd R.: The evolution of human hypersociality, Paper for Rindberg Castle Symposium on Ideology, Warfare, and Indoctrination, (January, 1995), and HBES meeting, (1995).Google Scholar
  274. Richerson, P., Boyd, R.: Not by Genes Alone: How Culture Transformed Human Evolution, Chicago University Press (2004).Google Scholar
  275. Ridker, P.: On evolutionary biology, inflammation, infection, and the causes of atherosclerosis, Circulation, 105:2-4 (2002).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  276. Ridley, M.: Evolution, Second Edition, Blackwell Science, Oxford, UK, (1996).Google Scholar
  277. Roberts, E.: Neighborhood social environmental and the distribution of low birthweight in Chicago. American Journal of Public Health, 87:597-603 (1997).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  278. Rodriguez-Sanz, M., Borrell, C., Urbanos, R., Pasarin, M., Rico, A., Fraile, M., Ramos, X., Navarro, V.: Power relations and premature mortality in Spains autonomous communities. International Journal of Health Servces, 33:687-722 (2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  279. Rojdestvensky, I., Cottam, M.: Mapping of statistical physics to information theory with applications to biological systems, Journal of Theoretical Biology, 202:43-54 (2000).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  280. Rose, N.: Mechanisms of autoimmunity, Seminars in Liver Disease 22:387-394 (2002).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  281. Rosmond, R., Bjorntorp, P.: Endocrine and metabolic aberrations in men with abdominal obesity in relation to anxio-depressive infirmity. Metabolism 47:1187-1193 (1998).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  282. Rosmond, R., Bjorntorp, P.: Psychosocial and socio-economic factors in women and their relationship to obesity and regional body fat distribution. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, 23:138-145 (1999).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  283. Rosner, D. (ed.): Hives of Sickness. Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick (1995).Google Scholar
  284. Ross, L.: Sterilization and ‘de facto’ sterilization. Amicus Journal, Winter: 29 (1994).Google Scholar
  285. Ross, N., Wolfson, M., Dunn, J., Berthelot, J., Kaplan, G., Lynch, J.: Relation between Income inequality and mortality in Canada and in the United States: cross sectional Assessment using census data and vital statistics. British Medical Journal, 320:898-902 (2000).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  286. Roth, J., Qiang, X., Marban, S., Redelt, H., Lowell, B.: The obesity pandemic: where have we been and where are we going. Obesity Research 12:88S-101S (2004).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  287. Sadanaga, R., Ohsumi K.:, Basic theorems of vector symmetry in crystallography, Acta Crystallographica A, A35:115-122 (1979).Google Scholar
  288. Sampson, R.: The impact of housing policies on community social disorganization and crime. Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, 66:526-533 (1990).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  289. Sampson R., Raudenbush S., Earls F.: Neighborhood and violent crime: a multilevel study of collective efficacy, Science, 277:918-924 (1997).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  290. Sandars, P.: A toy model for the generation of homochirality during polymerization, Origins of Life and Evolution of Bioshperes, 33:575-587 (2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  291. Santiago, E.: When I Was Puerto Rican. Vintage Books, New York, pp. 63-83 (1994).Google Scholar
  292. Santos-Alvarez, J., Governa, R., Sanchez-Margalet, V.: Human leptin stimulates proliferation and activation of circulating monocytes, Cellular Immunology, 194:6-11 (1999).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  293. Sarma, A., Schottenfeld, D.: Prostate cancer incidence, mortality, and survival trends in the United States,: 1981-2001, Seminars in Urological Oncology, 20:3-9 (2002).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  294. Schachter, L., Salome, C., Peat, J., Woolcock, A.: Obesity is a risk for asthma and wheeze but not airway hyperresponsiveness. Thorasics, 56:4-8 (2001).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  295. Schapiro, S., Nebete, P., Perlman, J., Bloomsmith, M., Sastry, K.: Effects of dominance status and environmental enrichment on cell-mediated immunity in rhesus macaques, Applied Animal Behavorial Science, 56:319-332 (1998).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  296. Scherrer, K., J. Jost, J.: The gene and the genon concept: a functional and information-theoretic analysis. Molecular Systems Biology 3:87-95 (2007).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  297. Scherrer, K., Jost, J.: Gene and genon concept: coding versus regulation. Theory in Bioscience 126:65-113 (2007).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  298. Schotte, H., Schluter, B., Rust, S., Assmann, G., Domschke, W., Gaubitz, M.: Interleukin-6 promoter polymorphism (-174 G/C) in Caucasian German patients with systematic lupus erythematosus, Rheumatology 40:393-400 (2001).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  299. Schubert C., Lampe A., Rumpold G., Fuchs D., Konig P., Chamson E, and Schussler, G.: Daily psychosocial stressors interfere with the dynamics of urine neopterin in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus: an integrative single-case study, Psychosomatic Medicine 61:876-882 (1999).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  300. Schultz, E.: Resolving the anti-antievolutionism dilemma: a brief for relational evolutionary thinking in anthropology. American Anthropologist, 111:224-237 (2009).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  301. Schwartz, E., Granger, D., Susman, E., Gunnar, M., Laird, B.: Assessing salivary cortisol in studies of child development. Child Development, 69:1503-1513 (1998).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  302. Shankardass, K., McConnell, R., Jerrett, M., Milam, J., Richardson, J., Berhane, K.: Parental stress increases the effect of traffic-related air pollution on childhood asthma incidence. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106:12406-12411 (2009).Google Scholar
  303. Sharp, D., Reinitz, J.: Prediction of mutant expression patterns using gene circuits. BioSystems 47:79-90 (1998).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  304. Shavers, V., Harlan, L., Stevens, J.: Racial/ethnic variation in clinical presentation, treatment, and survival among breast cancer patients under age 35, Cancer, 97:134-147 (2003).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  305. Shirkov, D., Kovalev, V.: The Bogoliubov renormalization group and solution symmetry in mathematical physics, Physics Reports, 352:219-249 (2001).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  306. Shumow L., Vandell D., Posner J.: Perceptions of danger: a psychological Mediator of neighborhood demographic characteristics, American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 68:468-478 (1998).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  307. Singhal, A., Farooque, I., Cole, T., O’Rahilly, S., Fewtress, M., Kattenhorn, M., Lucas, A., Deanfield, J.: Influence of leptin on arterial distensibility: a novel link between obesity and cardiovascular disease? Circulation, 15:1919-1924 (2002).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  308. Singh-Manoux, A., Adler, N., Marmot, M.: Subjective social status: its determinants and its association with measures of ill-health in the Whitehall II study, Social Science and Medicine, 56:1321-1333 (2003).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  309. Skierski, M., Grundland, A., Tuszynski, J.: Analysis of the three-dimensional time-dependent Landau-Ginzburg equation and its solutions. Journal of Physics A (Math. Gen.) 22:3789-3808 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  310. Smith, G., Hart, C., Blane, D., Hole, D.: Adverse socioeconomic conditions in childhood and cause-specific adult mortality: prospective observational study, British Medical Journal, 317:1631-1635 (1998).Google Scholar
  311. Smith, T., Ruiz, J.: Psychosocial influences on the development and course of coronary heart disease: current status and implications for research and practice, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70:548-568 (2002).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  312. Snow E.: The role of DNA repair in development, Reproductive Toxicology, 11:353-365 (1997).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  313. Somers, S., Guillou, P.: Tumor strategies for escaping immune control: implications for psychoimmunotherapy”, in Lewis C., O’Sullivan C. and Barraclough J. (eds.), The Psychoimmunology of Cancer: Mind and body in the fight for survival, Oxford Medical Publishing, pp. 385-416, (1994).Google Scholar
  314. Spiegel, K., Leproult, R., Van Cauter, E.: Impact of sleep debt on metabolic and endocrine function, The Lancet, 354:1435-1439 (1999).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  315. Sternberg E.: Neuroendocrine regulation of autoimmune/inflammatory disease, Journal of Endocrinology 169:429-435 (2001).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  316. Strauss, R., Pollack H.: Epidemic increase in childhood overweight, 1986-1998, Journal of the American Medical Association, 286:2845-2848 (2001).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  317. Svanes C., Omenaas E., Heuch J., Irgens L., Gulsvik A.: Birth characteristics and asthma symptoms in young adults: results from a population-based cohort study in Norway, European Respiratory Journal, 12:1366-1370 (1998).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  318. Tauber, A.: Conceptual shifts in immunology: Comments on the ‘two-way paradigm’. In K. Schaffner and T. Starzl (eds.), Paradigm Changes in Organ Transplantation, Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics, 19:457-473 (1998).Google Scholar
  319. Tenallion, O., Taddei, F., Radman, M., Matic, I.: Second-order selection in bacterial evolution: selection acting on mutation and recombination rates in the course of adaptation, Research in Microbiology, 115:11-16 (2001).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  320. Texeira J., Fisk N., Glover V.: Association between maternal anxiety in pregnancy and increased uterine artery resistance index: cohort based study, British Medical Journal, 318:153-157 (1999).Google Scholar
  321. Thaler, D.: Hereditary stability and variation in evolution and development, Evolution and Development, 1:113-122 (1999).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  322. Thayer, J., Lane, R.: A model of neurovisceral integration in emotion regulation and dysregulation, Journal of Affective Disorders, 61:201-216 (2000).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  323. Thayer, J., Friedman, B.: Stop that! Inhibition, sensitization, and their neurovisceral concomitants, Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 43:123-130 (2002).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  324. Thomas, S., Quinn, S.: The Tuskegee Syphilis Study, 1932 to 1972: implications for HIV education and AIDS risk education programs in the black community. American Journal of Public Health, 81:1498-1505 (1991).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  325. Timberlake, W.: Behavior systems, associationism, and Pavolvian conditioning. Psychonomic Bulletin, Rev. 1:405-420 (1994).Google Scholar
  326. Toulouse, G., Dehaene, S., Changeux, J.: Spin glass model of learning by selection. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 83:1695-1698 (1986).Google Scholar
  327. Turner, B.: Histone acetylation and an epigeneticv code. Bioessays 22:836-845 (2000).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  328. Ullmann, J.: The Anatomy of Industrial Decline, Greenwood-Quorum Books, Westport, CT (1998).Google Scholar
  329. Vallee, R.: Perception, decision and action, Journal of Biological Systems, 2:43-53 (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  330. Volanakis, J.: Human C-reactive protein: expression, structure, and function, Molecular Immunology, 38:189-197 (2001).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  331. Waddington, C.: Epilogue, in C. Waddington (ed.), Towards a Theoretical Biology: Essays, Aldine-Atherton, Chicago (1972).Google Scholar
  332. Waliszewski, P., Molski, M., Konarski, J.: On the holistic approach in cellular and cancer biology: nonlinearity, complexity, and quasi-determinism of the dynamic cellular network, Journal of Surgical Oncology, 68:70-78 (1998).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  333. Wallace, D.: The resurgence of tuberculosis in New York City: a mixed hierarchically and spatially diffused epidemic. American Journal of Public Health, 84:1000-1002 (1994).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  334. Wallace, D.: Analytical approaches for public health from ecosystem science. Proceedings of the 1995 Public Health Conference on Records and Statistics: Data Neees in an Era of Health Reform. CDC/NCHS, Bethesda (1995).Google Scholar
  335. Wallace, D., Wallace, R.: A Plague on Your Houses, Verso Publications, New York (1998).Google Scholar
  336. Wallace D, Wallace R.: Geography of asthma and diabetes over eight US metropolitan regions. Journal of Environmental Disease and Health Care Planning, 3:73-88 (1998).Google Scholar
  337. Wallace, D., Wallace, R.: Scales of geography, time, and population: the study of violence as a public health problem. American Journal of Public Health, 88:1853-1858 (1998).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  338. Wallace, D., Wallace, R.: Life and death in Upper Manhattan and the Bronx: toward an evolutionary perspective on catastrophic social change, Environment and Planning A, 32:1245-1266 (2000).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  339. Wallace, D., Wallace, R., Rauh, V.: Community stress, demoralization, and body mass index: evidence for social signal transduction. Social Science and Medicine, 56:2467-2478 (2003).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  340. Wallace, R., Wallace, D.: Origins of public health collapse in New York City: the dynamics Of planned shrinkage, contagious urban decay, and social disintegration. Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, 66:391-434 (1990).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  341. Wallace R., Fullilove M., Flisher, A.: AIDS, violence and behavioral coding: information theory, risk behavior, and dynamic process on core-group sociogeographic networks, Social Science and Medicine, 43:339-352 (1996).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  342. Wallace R., Wallace D.: Community marginalization and the diffusion of disease and disorder in the United States, British Medical Journal, 314:1341-1345 (1997).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  343. Wallace, R., Wallace, D., Andrews H.: AIDS, tuberculosis, violent crime and low birthweight in eight US metropolitan areas: stochastic resonance and the diffusion of inner-city markers, Environment and Planning A, 29:525-555 (1997).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  344. Wallace, R., Wallace, R.G.: Information theory, scaling laws and the thermodynamics of evolution, Journal of Theoretical Biology, 192:545-559 (1998).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  345. Wallace, R., Wallace, R.G.: Organisms, organizations, and interactions: an information theory approach to biocultural evolution, BioSystems, 51:101-119 (1999).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  346. Wallace, R., Fullilove, R.: Why simple regression models work so well describing risk behaviors in the USA, Environment and Planning A, 31:719-734 (1999).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  347. Wallace, R., Wallace, D., Ullmann, J., Andrews, H.: Deindustrialization, inner-city decay, and the diffusion of AIDS in the USA, Environment and Planning A, 31:113-139, (1999).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  348. Wallace, R., Wallace, D.: Emerging infections and nested martingales: the entrainment of affluent populations into the disease ecology of marginalization, Environment and Planning A, 31:1787-1803 (1999).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  349. Wallace, R., Wallace, R.G.: Immune cognition and vaccine strategy: beyond genomics, Microbes and Infection, 4:521-527 (2002).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  350. Wallace, R., Wallace, D., Wallace, R.G.: Toward cultural oncology: the evolutionary information dynamics of cancer, Open Systems and Information Dynamics, 10:159-181 (2003a).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  351. Wallace, R., Wallace, D., Wallace, R.G.: Coronary heart disease, chronic inflammation, and pathogenic social hierarchy: a biological limit to possible reductions in morbidity and mortality, Journal of the National Medical Association, 96:609-619 (2003b).Google Scholar
  352. Wallace, R.,Wallace, D.: Structured psychosocial stress and the US obesity epidemic, Journal of Biological Systems, 13:363-384 (2005).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  353. Wallace, R.: Language and coherent neural amplification in hierarchical systems: renormalization and the dual information source of a generalized stochastic resonance, International Journal of Bifurcation and Chaos, 10:493-502 (2000).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  354. Wallace, R.: Immune cognition and vaccine strategy: pathogenic challenge and ecological resilience, Open Systems and Information Dynamics, 9:51-83 (2002a).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  355. Wallace, R.: Adaptation, punctuation and rate distortion: non-cognitive ‘learning plateaus’ in evolutionary process, Acta Biotheoretica, 50:101-116 (2002b).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  356. Wallace, R.: Systemic lupus erythematosus in African-American women: cognitive physiological modules, autoimmune disease, and pathogenic social hierarchy, Advances in Complex Systems, 6:599-629 (2003a).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  357. Wallace, R., Wallace, R.G.: Adaptive chronic infection, structured psychosocial stress, and medical magic bullets, BioSystems, 77:93-108 (2004).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  358. Wallace, R., Wallace, D.: 2005, Structured psychosocial stress and the US obesity epidemic, Journal of Biological Systems, 13:363-384 (2005).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  359. Wallace, R.: Comorbidity in psychiatric and chronic physical disease: autocognitive developmental disorders of structured psychosocial stress, Acta Biotheoretica, 52:71-93 (2004).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  360. Wallace, R.: Consciousness: A mathematical treatment of the global neuronal workspace model, Springer-Verlag, New York (2005a).Google Scholar
  361. Wallace, R.: A global workspace perspective on mental disorders, Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling, 2/1/49 (2005b).Google Scholar
  362. Wallace, R.: Machine hyperconsciousness. Available at (2006).
  363. Wallace, R.: Culture and inattentional blindness. Journal of Theoretical Biology 245, 378-390 (2007).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  364. Wallace, R.: Toward formal models of biologically inspired, highly parallel machine cognition. International Journal of Parallel, Emergent, and Distributed Systems 23:367-408 (2008).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  365. Wallace, R.: Developmental disorders as pathological resilience domains. Ecology and Society, 13: 29 (2008).
  366. Wallace, R.: Programming coevolutionary machines: the emerging conundrum. In press, International Journal of Parallel, Emergent, and Distributed Systems (2009).Google Scholar
  367. Wallace, R., Wallace, D., Fullilove, M.: Community lynching and the US asthma epidemic, (2003).
  368. Wallace, R., Fullilove, M.: Collective Consciousness and its Discontents: Institutional Distributed Cognition, Racial Policy, and Public Health in the United States. Springer, New York (2008).Google Scholar
  369. Wallace, R., Wallace, D.: Punctuated equilibrium in statistical models of generalized coevolutionary resilience: how sudden ecosystem transitions can entrain both phenotype expression and Darwinian selection. Transactions on Computational Systems Biology IX LNBI 5121, 23-85 (2008).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  370. Wallace, R., Wallace, R.G.: On the spectrum of prebiotic chemical systems: an information-theoretic treatment of Eigen’s paradox, Origins of Life and Evolution of Biospheres, 38:419-455 (2008).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  371. Wallace, R.G.: AIDS in the HAART era: New Yorks heterogeneous geography. Social Science and Medicine, 56:1155-1171 (2003).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  372. Wallace, R.G., and Wallace, R.: Evolutionary radiation and the spectrum of consciousness. Consciousness and Cognition 18:160-167 (2009).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  373. Waterland R., Michels, K.: Epigenetic epidemiology of the developmental origins hypothesis. Annual Reviews of Nutrition 27:363-388 (2007).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  374. Weaver, I.: Epigenetic effects of glucocorticoids. Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine, doi:10.1016/j.siny.2008.12.002 (2009).Google Scholar
  375. Weinstein, A.: Groupoids: unifying internal and external symmetry. Notices of the American Mathematical Association 43:744-752 (1996).Google Scholar
  376. Wellman, N., Friedberg, B.: Causes and consequences of adult obesity: health, social and economic impacts in the United States, Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Suppl.8:S705-S709, (2002).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  377. West-Eberhard, M.: Developmental plasticity and the origin of species differences. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 102:6543-6549 (2005).Google Scholar
  378. Whitehead, M., Judge, K., Bensaval, M., Shouls, S., Diderichsen, F., Hort, S., Danielsson, M.: Project Details: Health Variations Program. Award H28251029. (1997-1998).
  379. Whittingham, S., Mackey, I.: The ‘pemphigus’ antibody and immunopathologies affecting the thymus, British Journal of Dermitology 84:1-6 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  380. Wichen, E.: Tuberculosis in the Negro in Pittsburgh. Tuberculosis League of Pittsburgh (1934).Google Scholar
  381. Wiegand, R.: An analysis of cooperative coevolutionary algorithms. PhD Thesis, George Mason University (2003).Google Scholar
  382. Wilken, J., Smith, B., Tola K., Mann, M.: Trait anxiety and prior exposure to non-stressful stimuli: effects on psychophysiological arousal and anxiety, International Journal of Psychophysiology, 37:233-242 (2000).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  383. Wilkinson, R.: Unhealthy Societies: the afflictions of inequality, Routledge, London and New York (1996).Google Scholar
  384. Williams, D., Collins, C.: Racial residential segregation: a fundamental cause of racial disparities in health. Public Health Reports, 116:404-416 (2001).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  385. Wilson, K.: Renormalization group and critical phenomena. I Renormalization group and the Kadanoff scaling picture, Physical Revies B 4:3174-3183 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  386. Wilson, J., Nugent, N., Baltes, J., Tokunaga, S., Canic, T., Yourn, B., Bellinger, E., Delac, D., Golston G., Henderson, D.: Effects of low doses of caffeine on aggressive behavior of male rats, Psychological Reports, 86:941-946 (2000).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  387. Wolfe WS, Campbell CC, Frongillo EA Jr, Haas JD, Melnik TA. 1994. Overweight schoolchildren in New York State: prevalence and characteristics. Am J Public Health, 84:807-813.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  388. Wolpert, D., Macready, W.: No free lunch theorems for search, Santa Fe Institute, SFI-TR-02-010 (1995).Google Scholar
  389. Wolpert, D., Macready, W.: No free lunch theorems for optimization, IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation 1:67-82 (1997).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  390. Wright, R., Rodriguez, M., Cohen, S.: Review of psychosocial stress and asthma: an integrated biopsychosocial approach, Thorax, 53:1066-1074 (1998).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  391. Wymer, C.,: Structural nonlinear continuous-time models in econometrics. Macroeconomic Dynamics 1:518-548 (1997).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  392. Yammamoto, A., Ishihara, K.: Penrose patterns and related structures. II. Decagonal quasicrystals, Acta Crystallographa A, A44:707-714 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  393. Yerger, V., Malone, R.: African American leadership groups: smoking with the enemy. Tobacco Control, 11:336-345 (2002).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  394. Zahner, G., Kasl, S., White, M., Will, J.: Psychological consequences of infestation of the dwelling unit. American Journal of Public Health, 75:1303-1307 (1985).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  395. Zhu, R., Rebirio, A., Salahub, D., Kaufmann, S.: Studying genetic regulatory networks at the molecular level: delayed reaction stochastic models, Journal of Theoretical Biology 246, 725-745 (2007).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of EpidemiologyNew York State Psychiatric InstituteNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.New YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations