Final thoughts



We have presented an epigenetic catalysis model of development that can, in a natural manner, account for individual or simple group aggregate scale phenomena. The ideas fit well to observed data on the US obesity pandemic, its correlates of coronary heart disease, hypertension, and diabetes, and possibly to some cancers and autoimmune disorders. The model fits less well at the neighborhood scale, where multiple chronic diseases not only emerge, but may interact and reflect phenomena of group gene expression. These may possibly be analogous to the mesoscale resonance effects of Wallace and Wallace (2008), driven by the interaction of the three types of human heritage: culture, genetic, and epigenetic. The Upper Manhattan study, that used a carefully selected sample of high function young mothers as indicators of neighborhood conditions, required some fairly subtle argument to explain figure 11.2. Chapter 12 found a neighborhood level disease guild of chronic and behavioral disorders that appears to display emergent properties among interacting processes of behavior and gene expression beyond the ability of our model to easily explain.


Emergent Property Neighborhood Scale Multiple Chronic Disease Final Thought Stressed Population 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of EpidemiologyNew York State Psychiatric InstituteNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.New YorkUSA

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