Measuring Gender: Options and Issues

  • Andrew P. Smiler
  • Marina Epstein

Measuring Gender: Options and Issues

In 1979, Carole Beere published an index of 235 gender-related measures. In her effort to update the volume a decade later, she reviewed over 1,400 measures (Beere, 1990a, 1990b). Although less than 10% of the newly published measures had been cited more than five times, the sheer volume of measures suggests that there is (or was) great interest in assessing gender-related phenomena, that there were many options for doing so, and that gender is a complex, multidimensional phenomenon. The plethora of measures also suggests that there were substantial disagreements about measurement and that there were (likely) fractures in the field.

This chapter emerges from a perspective that holds gender to be socially constructed, consistent with literature that has demonstrated changes in femininity and masculinity across times and places (Best & Williams, 1998; Gilmore, 1990; Kimmel, 1996; Smiler, Kay, & Harris, 2008; Twenge, 1997a, 1997b). Before we go...


Exploratory Factor Analysis Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Benevolent Sexism Gender Dysphoria Gender Identity Disorder 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrew P. Smiler
    • 1
  • Marina Epstein
    • 2
  1. 1.State University of New YorkOswegoUSA
  2. 2.University of MichiganAnn ArborUSA

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