Advertisement

The Physiology of Sex Differences

  • Deborah Saucier
  • Crystal Ehresman
Chapter

Keywords

Mental Rotation Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Spatial Ability Heterosexual Woman Heterosexual Individual 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Aleman, A., Bronk, E., Kessels, R. P. C., Koppeschaar, H. P. F., & van Honk, J. (2004). A single administration of testosterone improves visuospatial ability in young women. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 29, 612–617.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allen, L. S., Damasio, H., & Grabowski, T. J. (2002). Normal neuroanatomical variation in the human brain: An MRI-volumetric study. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 118, 341–358.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Allen, L. S., & Gorski, R. A. (1992). Sexual orientation and the size of the anterior commissure in the human brain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 89, 7199–7202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Almeida, O. P., Lautenschlager, N. T., Vasikaran, S., Leedman, P., Gelavis, A., & Flicker, L. (2006). A 20-week randomized controlled trial of estradiol replacement therapy for women aged 70 years and older: Effect on mood, cognition, and quality of life. Neurobiology of Aging, 27, 141–149.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Arnold, A. P., & Gorski, R. A. (1984). Gonadal steroid induction of structural sex differences in the central nervous system. Annual Reviews in Neuroscience, 7, 413–442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Astur, R. S., Ortiz, M. L., & Sutherland, R. J. (1998). A characterization of performance by men and women in a virtual Morris water task: A large and reliable sex difference. Behavioural Brain Research, 93, 185–190.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Berenbaum, S. A. (1999). Effects of early androgens on sex-typed activities and interests in adolescents with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Hormones and Behavior, 35, 102–110.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Berenbaum, S. A., Martin, C. L., Hanish, L. D., Briggs, P. T., & Fabes, R. A. (2008). Sex differences in children’s play. In J. B. Becker, K. J. Berkley, N. Geary, E. Hampson, J. Herman, & E. Young (Eds.), Sex differences in the brain: From genes to behavior (pp. 275–290). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Berenbaum, S. A., & Resnick, S. M. (1997). Early androgen effects on aggression in children and adults with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 22, 505–515.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bergemann, N., Parzer, P., Kaiser, D., Maier-Braunleder, S., Mundt, C., & Klier, C. (2008). Testosterone and gonadotropins but not estrogen associated with spatial ability in women suffering from schizophrenia: A double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 33, 507–516.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bodo, C., & Rissman, E. F. (2008). The androgen receptor is selectively involved in organization of sexually dimorphic social behaviours in mice. Endocrinology, 149, 4142–4150.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Boehmer, A. L., Brinkmann, O., Brüggenwirth, H., van Assendelft, C., Otten, B. J., Verleun-Mooijman, M. C., et al. (2001). Genotype versus phenotype in families with androgen insensitivity syndrome. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 86, 4151–4160.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Breedlove, S. M. (1997). Neonatal androgen and estrogen treatments masculinize the size of motorneurons in the rat spinal nucleus of the bulbocavernosus. Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology, 17, 687–697.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Burkitt, J., Widman, D., & Saucier, D. M. (2007). Evidence for the influence of testosterone in the performance of spatial navigation in a virtual water maze in women but not in men. Hormones and Behavior, 51, 649–654.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Byne, W., Tobet, S., Mattiace, L. A., Lasco, M. S., Kemether, E., & Edgar, M. A. (2001). The interstitial nuclei of the human anterior hypothalamus: An investigation of variation with sex, sexual orientation, and HIV status. Hormones and Behavior, 40, 86–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cherrier, M. M., Matsumoto, A. M., Amory, J. K., Ahmed, S., Bremner, W., Peskind, E. R., et al. (2005). The role of aromatization in testosterone supplementation: Effects on cognition in older men. Neurology, 64, 290–296.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chipman, K., & Kimura, D. (1998). An investigation of sex differences on incidental memory for verbal and pictorial material. Brain and Cognition, 47, 470–493.Google Scholar
  18. Cohen-Kettenis, P. T., van Goozen, S. H. M., Doorn, C. D., & Gooren, L. J. G. (1998). Cognitive ability and cerebral lateralization in transsexuals. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 23, 631–641.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Collaer, M. L., Reimers, S., & Manning, J. T. (2007). Visuospatial performance on an internet line judgment task and potential hormonal markers: Sex, sexual orientation, and 2D:4D. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 36, 177–192.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Collins, D. W., & Kimura, D. (1997). A large sex difference on a two-dimensional mental rotation task. Behavioral Neuroscience, 111, 845–849.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Courchesne, E., Chisum, H. J., Townsend, J. Cowles, A., Covington, J., Egaas, B., et al. (2000). Normal brain development and aging: Quantitative analysis at in vivo MR imaging in healthy volunteers. Radiology, 216, 672–682.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Dorner, G. Docke, F., Gotz, F., Rohde, W., Stahl, F., & Tonjes, R. (1987). Sexual differentiation of gonadotrophin secretion, sexual orientation, and gender role behavior. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry, 27, 1081–1087.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Downey, J., Ehrhardt, A. A., Schiffman, M., Dyrenfurth, I., & Becker, J. (1987). Sex hormones in lesbian and heterosexual women. Hormones and Behavior, 21, 347–357.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Driscoll, I., Hamilton, D. A., Yeo, R. A., Brooks, W. M., & Sutherland, R. J. (2005). Virtual navigation in humans: The impact of age, sex, and hormones on place learning. Hormones and Behavior, 47, 326–335.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Duka, T, Tasker, R., & McGowan, J. F. (2000). The effects of 3-week estrogen hormone replacement on cognition in elderly healthy females. Psychopharmacology, 149, 129–139.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Eals, M., & Silverman, I. (1994). The hunter-gatherer theory of spatial sex differences: Proximate factors mediating the female advantage in recall of object arrays. Ethology and Sociobiology, 15, 95–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Eckel, L. A., Arnold, A. P., Hampson, E., Becker, J. B., Blaustein, J. D., & Herman, J. P. (2008). Research and methodological issues in the study of sex differences and hormone-behavior relations. In J. B. Becker, K. J. Berkley, N. Geary, E. Hampson, J. P. Herman, & E. A. Young (Eds.), Sex differences in the brain: From genes to behavior (pp. 35–62). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Emory, L. E., Williams, D. H., Cole, C. M., Amparo, E. G., & Meyer, W. J. (1991). Anatomic variation of the corpus callosum in persons with gender dysphoria. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 20, 409–417.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Epting, L. K., & Overman, W. H. (1998). Sex-sensitive tasks in men and women: A search for performance fluctuations across the menstrual cycle. Behavioral Neuroscience, 112, 1304–1317.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ernst, M., Maheu, F. S., Schroth, E., Hardin, J., Green Golan, L., Cameron, J., et al. (2007). Amygdala function in adolescents with congential adrenal hyperplasia: A model for the study of early steroid abnormalities. Neuropsychologia, 45, 2104–2113.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Farage, M. A., Osborn, T. W., & MacLean, A. B. (2008). Cognitive, sensory, and emotional changes associated with the menstrual cycle: A review. Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 278, 299–307.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Filipek, P. A., Richelme, C., Kennedy, D. N., & Caviness, V. S. (1994). The young adult brain: An MRI-based morphometric analysis. Cerebral Cortex, 4, 344–360.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Fonda, S. J., Bertrand, R., O’Donnell, A., Longcope, C., & McKinlay, J. B. (2005). Age, hormones, and cognitive functioning among middle-aged and elderly men: Cross-sectional evidence from the Massachusetts Male Aging Study. Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 60, 385–390.Google Scholar
  34. Galea, L. A., & Kimura, D. (1993). Sex differences in route-learning. Personality and Individual Differences, 14, 53–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Gartrell, N. K., Lorieaux, L., & Chase, T. N. (1977). Plasma testosterone in homosexual and heterosexual women. American Journal of Psychiatry, 134, 1117–1119.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Gazzaniga, M. S. Ivry, R. B., & Mangun, G. R. (2002). Cognitive neuroscience: The biology of the mind (2nd ed.). New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  37. Gladue, B. A., & Bailey, J. M. (1995). Spatial ability, handedness, and human sexual orientation. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 20, 487–497.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gooren, L. J. G., & Giltay, E. J. (2008). Review of studies of androgen treatment of female-to-male transsexuals: Effects and risks of administration of androgens to females. Journal of Sexual Medicine, 5, 765–776.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gorski, R. (1971). Gonadal hormones and the perinatal development of neuroendocrine function. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  40. Gouchie, C., & Kimura, D. (1991). The relationship between testosterone levels and cognitive ability patterns. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 16, 323–334.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Grimshaw, G. M., Sirarenios, G., & Finegan, J. K. (1995). Mental rotation at 7 years: Relations with prenatal testosterone levels and spatial play experiences. Brain and Cognition, 29, 85–100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Gur, R. C., Mozley, P. D., Resnick, S. M. Gottlieb, G. L., Kohn, M., Zimmerman, R., et al. (1991). Gender differences in age effect on brain atrophy measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 88, 2845–2849.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Halari, R., Hines, M., Kumari, V., Mehrotra, R., Wheeler, M., Ng, V., et al. (2005). Sex differences and individual differences in cognitive performance and their relationship to endogenous gonadal hormones and gonadotropins. Behavioral Neuroscience, 119, 104–117.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Halbreich, U., Lumley, L. A., Palter, S., Manning, C., Gengo, F., & Joe, S. (1995). Possible acceleration of age effects on cognition following menopause. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 29, 153–163.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hampson, E. (1990). Estrogen-related variation in human spatial and articulatory-motor skills. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 15, 97–111.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hampson, E., Rovet, J. F., & Altmann, D. (1998). Spatial reasoning in children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Developmental Neuropsychology, 14, 299–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Handa, R. J., Burgess, L. H., Kerr, J. E., & O’Keefe, J. A. (1994). Gonadal steroid hormone receptors and sex differences in the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis. Hormones and Behavior, 28, 464–476.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hassett, J. M., Siebert, E. R., & Wallen, K. (2008). Sex differences in rhesus monkey toy preferences parallel those of children. Hormones and Behavior, 54, 359–364.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hausmann, M., Slabbekoorn, D., van Goozen, S. H., Cohen-Kettenis, P. T., & Güntürkün, O. (2000). Sex hormones affect spatial abilities during the menstrual cycle. Behavioral Neuroscience, 114, 1245–1250.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hook, J. N., Giordani, B., Schteingart, D. E., Guire, K., Giles, J., Ryan, K., et al. (2007). Patterns of cognitive change over time and relationship to age following successful treatment of Cushing’s disease. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 13, 21–29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Iaria, G., Lanyon, L. J., Fox, C. J., Giaschi, D., & Barton, J. J. S. (2008). Navigational skills correlate with hippocampal fractional anisotropy in humans. Hippocampus, 18, 335–339.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Imperato-McGinley, J., Pichado, M., Gautier, T., Voyer, D., & Bryden, M. P. (1991). Cognitive abilities in androgen-insensitive subjects: Comparison with control males and females from the same kindred. Clinical Endocrinology, 34, 341–347.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Ingram, D. (1975). Motor asymmetries in young children. Neuropsychologia, 13, 95–102.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. James, W. H. (2005). Biological and psychosocial determinants of male and female human sexual orientation. Journal of Biosocial Science, 37, 555–567.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Janowsky, J. (2006). Thinking with your gonads: Testosterone and cognition. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 10, 77–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Janowsky, J. S., Oviatt, S. K., & Orwoll, E. S. (1994). Testosterone influences spatial cognition in older men. Behavioral Neuroscience, 108, 325–332.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Joffe, T. H., Tarantal, A. F., Rice, K., Leland, M., Oreke, A. K., Rodeck, C., et al. (2005). Fetal and infant head circumference sexual dimorphism in primates. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 126, 97–110.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Johnson, E. S., & Meade, A. C. (1987). Developmental patterns of spatial ability: An early sex difference. Child Development, 58, 725–740.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Jost, A., Vigier, B., Prepin, J., & Perchellet, J. P. (1973). Studies on sex differentiation in mammals. Recent Progress in Hormone Research, 29, 1–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Kerns, K. A., & Berenbaum, S. A. (1991). Sex differences in spatial ability in children. Behavior Genetics, 21, 383–396.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Kimura, D. (1992, September). Sex differences in the brain. Scientific American, 267,. 119–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Kimura, D. (1999). Sex and cognition. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  63. Kimura, D. (2002). Sex hormones influence human cognitive pattern. Neuroendocrinology Letters, 23(Suppl.4), 67–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Kimura, D., & Clarke, P. G. (2002). Women’s advantage on verbal memory is not restricted to concrete words. Psychological Reports, 91, 1137–1142.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Kimura, D., & Hampson, E. (1994). Cognitive pattern in men and women is influenced by fluctuations in sex hormones. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 3, 57–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Knickmeyer, R. C., & Baron-Cohen, S. (2006). Fetal testosterone and sex differences. Early Human Development, 82, 755–760.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Kruijver, F. P. M., Balesar, R., Espila, A. M., Unmehopa, U. A., & Swaab, D. F. (2002). Estrogen receptor-α distribution in the human hypothalamus in relation to sex and endocrine status. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 454, 115–139.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Lasco, M. S., Jordan, T. J., Edgar, M. A., Petito, C. K., & Byne, W. (2002). A lack of dimorphism of sex or sexual orientation in the human anterior commissure. Brain Research, 36, 95–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Leranth, C., MacLusky, N. J., & Hajszan, T. (2008). Sex differences in neuroplasticity. In J. B. Becker, K. J. Berkley, N. Geary, E. Hampson, J. P. Herman, & E. A. Young (Eds.), Sex differences in the brain: From genes to behavior (pp. 201–226). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  70. LeVay, S. (1991). A difference in hypothalamic structure between heterosexual and homosexual men. Science, 253, 1034–1037.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. LeVay, S., & Nonas, E. (1997). City of friends: A portrait of the gay and lesbian community in America. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  72. LeVay, S., & Valente, S. M. (2002). Human sexuality. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer.Google Scholar
  73. Maki, P. M., Rich, J. B., & Rosenbaum, R. S. (2002). Implicit memory varies across the menstrual cycle: Estrogen effects in young women. Neuropsychologia, 40, 518–529.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Malouf, M. A., Migeon, C. J., Carson, K. A., Petrucci, L., & Wisniewski, A. A. (2006). Cognitive outcome in adult women affected by congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Hormone Research, 65, 142–150.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Mann, V. A., Sasanuma, S., Sakuma, N., & Masaki, S. (1990). Sex differences in cognitive abilities: A cross-cultural perspective. Neuropsychologia, 28, 1063–1077.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Martin, D. M., Wittert, G., & Burns, N. R. (2007). Gonadal steroids and visuo-spatial abilities in adult males: Implications for generalized age-related cognitive decline. Aging Male,10, 17–29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Mashoodh, R., Wright, L. D., Hebert, K., & Perrot-Sinal, T. S. (2008). Investigation of sex differences in behavioural, endocrine, and neural measures following repeated psychological stressor exposure. Behavioural Brain Research, 118, 368–379.Google Scholar
  78. Mayes, J. T., Jahoda, G., Neilson, I., & Berenbaum, S. A. (1988). Patterns of visual-spatial performance and ‘spatial ability’: Dissociation of ethnic and sex differences. British Journal of Psychology, 79, 105–119.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Maylor, E. A., Reimers, S., Choi, J., Collaer, M. L., Peters, M., & Silverman, I. (2007). Gender and sexual orientation differences in cognition across adulthood: Age is kinder to women than men regardless of sexual orientation. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 36, 235–249.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. McCormick, C. M., & Teillon, S. M. (2001). Menstrual cycle variation in spatial ability: Relation to salivary cortisol levels. Hormones and Behavior, 39, 29–38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. McEwen, B. S. (2001). Estrogens effects on the brain: Multiple sites and molecular mechanisms. Journal of Applied Physiology, 91, 2785–2801.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Meaney, M. J. (1989). The sexual differentiation of social play. Psychiatric Developments, 7, 247–261.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Meyer-Bahlberg, H. F. L. (1984). Psychoendocrine research on sexual orientation: Current status and future options. In G. J. de Vries, J. P. C. de Bruin, H. B. Uylings, & M. A. Corner (Eds.), Progress in brain research: Sex differences in the brain (Vol. 61, pp. 375–398). Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  84. Miles, C., Green, R., Sanders, G., & Hines, M. (1998). Estrogen and memory in a transsexual population. Hormones and Behavior, 34, 199–208.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Moffat, S. D., & Hampson, E. (1994). Is testosterone related to spatial cognition and hand preference in humans? Brain and Cognition, 26, 255–266.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Moffat, S. D., & Hampson, E. A. (1996). Curvilinear relationship between testosterone and spatial cognition in humans: Possible influence of hand preference. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 21, 323–337.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Morales, A. (2004). Andropause (or symptomatic late-onset hypogonadism): Facts, fiction and controversies. Aging Male, 7, 297–303.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Mueller, S. C, Temple, V., Oh, E., Van Ryzin, C., Williams, A., Cornwell, B., et al. (2008). Early androgen exposure modulates spatial cognition in congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). Psychoneuroendocrinology, 33, 973–980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Mustanski, B. S., Chivers, M. L., & Bailey, J. M. (2002). A critical review of recent biological research on human sexual orientation. Annual Review of Sex Research, 13, 89–140.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Naftolin, F., Ryan, K. J., Davies, I. J., Petro, Z., & Kuhn, M. (1975). The formation and metabolism of estrogens in brain tissues. Advances in the Biosciences, 15, 105–121.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Nass, R., & Baker, S. (1991). Androgen effects on cognition: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 16, 189–201.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Neave, N., Menaged, M., & Weightman, D. R. (1999). Sex differences in cognition: The role of testosterone and sexual orientation. Brain and Cognition, 41, 245–262.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Newman, M. L., Sellers, J. G., & Josephs, R. A. (2005). Testosterone, cognition, and social status. Hormones and Behavior, 47, 205–211.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Pakkenberg, B., & Gundersen, H. J. (1997). Neocortical neuron number in humans: Effect of sex and age. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 384, 312–320.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Pearcey, S. M., Docherty, K. J., & Dabbs, J. M. (1996). Testosterone and sex role identification in lesbian couples. Physiology and Behavior, 60, 1033–1035.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Pellis, S. M., Field, E. F., Smith, L. K., & Pellis, V. C. (1997). Multiple differences in the play fighting of male and female rats: Implications for the causes and functions of play. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 21, 105–120.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Peters, M., Manning, J. T., & Reimers, S. (2007). The effects of sex, sexual orientation, and digit ration (2D:4D) on mental rotation performance. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 36, 251–260.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Ponseti, J., Siebner, H R., Kloppel, S., Wolff, S., Granert, O., Jansen, O., et al. (2007). Homosexual women have less grey matter in perirhinal cortex than heterosexual women. PLoS One, 8, e762. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0000762. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Postma, A., Meyer, G., Tuiten, A., van Honk, J., Kessles, R. P. C., & Thijssen, J. (2000). Effects of testosterone administration on selective aspects of object-location memory in healthy young women. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 25, 563–575.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Protopopescu, X., Butler, T., Pan, H., Root, J., Altemus, M., Polanecsky, M., et al. (2008). Hippocampal structural changes across the menstrual cycle. Hippocampus, 18, 985–988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Rahman, Q., Abrahams, S., & Wilson, G. D. (2003). Sexual-orientation-related differences in verbal fluency. Neuropsychology, 17,240–246.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Rahman, Q., & Wilson, G. D. (2003). Large sexual-orientation-related differences in performance on mental rotation and judgment of line orientation tasks. Neuropsychology, 17, 25–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Ross, J., Roeltgen, D., & Zinn, A. (2006). Cognition and the sex chromosomes: Studies in Turner’s Syndrome. Hormone Research, 65, 47–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Rosser, R. A., Horan, P. F., Mattson, S. L., & Mazzeo, J. (1984). Comprehension of Euclidean space in young children: The early emergence of understanding and its limits. Genetic Psychology Monographs, 110, 21–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Ruble, D. N., Martin, C. L., & Berenbaum, S. A. (2006). Gender development. In N. Eisenberg (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Social, emotional, and personality development (6th ed., Vol. 3, pp. 858–932). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  106. Sanders, G., & Wright, M. (1997). Sexual orientation differences in cerebral asymmetry and in the performance of sexually dimorphic cognitive and motor tasks. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 26, 463–480.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Saucier, D. M., Elias, L. J., & Nylen, K. (2002). Are colours special? An examination of the female advantage for speeded colour naming. Personality and Individual Differences, 32, 27–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Saucier, D. M., Green, S. M., Leason, J., MacFadden, A., Bell, S., & Elias, L. J. (2002). Are sex differences in navigation caused by sexually dimorphic strategies or by differences in the ability to use the strategies? Behavioral Neuroscience, 116, 403–410.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Saucier, D. M., & Kimura, D. (1998). Intrapersonal motor but not extrapersonal targeting skill is enhanced during the midluteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Developmental Neuropsychology, 14, 385–398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Saucier, D. M., McCreary, D. R., & Saxberg, J. K .J. (2002). Does gender role socialization mediate sex differences in mental rotations? Personality and Individual Differences, 32, 1101–1111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Saucier, D. M., Shultz, S. R., Keller, A. J., Cook, C. M., & Binsted, G. (2008). Sex differences in object location memory and spatial navigation in Long-Evans rats. Animal Cognition, 11, 129–137.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Savic, I., & Lindstrom, P. (2008). PET and MRI show differences in cerebral asymmetry and functional connectivity between homo- and heterosexual subjects. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA, 105, 9403–9408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Schoning, S., Engelien, A., Kugel, H., Schafer, S., Schiffbauer, H., Zwitserlood, P., et al. (2007). Functional anatomy of visuo-spatial working memory during mental rotation is influenced by sex, menstrual cycle, and sex steroid hormones. Neuropsychologia, 45, 3203–3214.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Seeman, T. E., McEwen, B. S., Singer, B. H., Albert, M. S., & Rowe, J. W. (1997). Increase in urinary cortisol excretion and memory declines: MacArthur studies of successful aging. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 82, 2458–2465.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Shepard, R. N., & Metzler, J. (1971). Mental rotation of three-dimensional objects. Science, 171, 701–703.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Silverman, I., Choi, J., Mackewn, A., Fisher, M., Moro, J., & Olshansky, E. (2000). Evolved mechanisms underlying wayfinding: Further studies on the hunter-gatherer theory of spatial sex differences. Evolution and Human Behavior, 21, 201–213.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Silverman, I., Choi, J., & Peters, M. (2007). The hunter-gatherer theory of sex differences in spatial abilities: Data from forty countries. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 36, 261–268.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Silverman, I., & Eals, M. (1992). Sex differences in spatial abilities: Evolutionary theory and data. In J. H. Barkow, L. Cosmides, & J. Tooby (Eds.), The adapted mind (pp. 533–549). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  119. Silverman, I., & Phillips, K. (1993). Effects of estrogen changes during the menstrual cycle on spatial performance. Ethology and Sociobiology, 14, 257–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Singh, D., Vidaurri, M., Zambarano, R. J., & Dabbs, J. M. (1999). Lesbian erotic role identification: Behavioral, morphological, and hormonal correlates. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76, 1035–1049.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Slabbekoorn, D., van Goozen, S. H. M., Megens, J., Gooren, L. J. G., & Cohen-Kettenis, P. T. (1999). Activating effects of cross-sex hormones on cognitive functioning: A study of short-term and long-term hormone effects in transexuals. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 24, 423–447.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Snihur, A. W. K., Hampson, E., & Cain, D. P. (2008). Estradiol and corticosterone independently impair spatial navigation in the Morris water maze in adult female rats. Behavioural Brain Research, 187, 56–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Spanswick, S. C., Epp, J. R., Keith, J. R., & Sutherland, R. J. (2007). Adrenalectomy-induced granule cell degeneration in the hippocampus causes spatial memory deficits that are not reversed by chronic treatment with corticosterone or fluoxetine. Hippocampus, 17, 137–146.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Spelke, E. S. (2005). Sex differences in intrinsic aptitude for mathematics and science? A critical review. American Psychologist, 60, 950–958.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Starkman, M. N., Giordani, B., Berent, S., Schork, M. A., & Schteingart, D. E. (2001). Elevated cortisol levels in Cushing’s disease are associated with cognitive decrements. Psychosomatic Medicine, 63, 985–993.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Swaab, D. F. (2004). Sexual differentiation of the human brain: Relevance for gender identity, transsexualism, and sexual orientation. Gynecological Endocrinology, 19, 301–312.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Swaab, D. F., & Hoffman, M. A. (1990). An enlarged suprachiasmatic nucleus in homosexual men. Brain Research, 537, 141–148.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Tottenham, L. S., Saucier, D., Elias, L., & Gutwin, C. (2003). Female advantage for spatial location memory in both static and dynamic environments. Brain and Cognition, 53, 381–383.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Vandenberg, S. G., & Kuse, A. R. (1978). Mental rotations: A group test of three-dimensional spatial visualization. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 47, 599–604.Google Scholar
  130. van Goozen, S. H. M., Cohen-Kettenis, P. T., Gooren, L. J. G., Frijda, N. H., & van de Poll, N. E. (1995). Gender differences in behavior: Activating effects of cross-sex hormones. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 20, 343–363.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Voyer, D., Voyer, S., & Bryden, M. P. (1995). Magnitude of sex differences in spatial abilities: A meta-analysis and consideration of critical variables. Psychological Bulletin, 117, 250–270.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Watson, N. V., & Kimura, D. (1989). Right-hand superiority for throwing but not for intercepting. Neuropsychologia, 27, 1399–1414.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Wegesin, D. J. (1998). A neuropsychologic profile of homosexual and heterosexual men and women. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 20, 307–318.Google Scholar
  134. Williams, C. L., Barnett, A. M., & Meck, W. H. (1990). Organizational effects of early gonadal secretions on sexual differentiation in spatial memory. Behavioral Neuroscience, 104, 84–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Williams, C. L., & Meck, W. H. (1991). The organizational effects of gonadal steroids on sexually dimorphic spatial ability. Psychoneuroendocrinology 16,155–176.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Wilson, E. M., & Davies, D. C. (2007). The control of sexual differentiation of the reproductive system and brain. Reproduction, 133, 331–359.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Witelson, S. F., Kigar, S. L., Scamvougeras, A., Kideckel, D .M., Buck. B., Stanchev, P. L., et al. (2008). Corpus callosum anatomy in right-handed homosexual and heterosexual men. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 37, 857–863.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Zhou, J. N., Hofman, M. A., Gooren, L. J. G., & Swaab, D. F. (1995). A sex difference in the human brain and its relation to transsexuality. Nature, 378, 68–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Zuloaga, D. G., Puts, D. A., Jordon, C. L., & Breedlove, S. M. (2008). The role of androgen receptors in the masculinization of brain and behavior: What we’ve learned from the testicular feminization mutation. Hormones and Behavior, 53, 613–626.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Deborah Saucier
    • 1
  • Crystal Ehresman
    • 1
  1. 1.University of LethbridgeLethbridgeCanada

Personalised recommendations