General Concepts in the Theory of Measurements
The theory of measurement accuracy is a branch of metrology – the science of measurements. In presenting the theory we shall adhere, whenever possible, to the terminology given in the International Vocabulary of Metrology – Basic and General Concepts and Associated Terms . We shall discuss the terms that are most important for this book.
A measurable quantity (briefly – quantity) is a property of phenomena, bodies, or substances that can be defined qualitatively and expressed quantitatively. The first measurable quantities were probably length, mass, and time, i.e., quantities that people employed in everyday life and these concepts appeared unconsciously. Later, with the development of science, measurable quantities came to be introduced consciously to study the corresponding laws in physics, chemistry, and biology.
The term quantity is used in both the general and the particular sense. It is used in the general sense when referring to the general properties of objects, for example, length, mass, temperature, or electric resistance. It is used in the particular sense when referring to the properties of a specific object: the length of a given rod, the electric resistance of a given segment of wire, and so on. The principal feature of quantities in the context of this book is that they can be measured. A measurand is a quantity intended to be measured.
KeywordsMeasurement Standard Measurable Quantity Random Quantity North American Free Trade Agreement Inaccuracy Estimation
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