Motivational Processes Within the Perception–Action Cycle
The present chapter discusses psychologically well-justified models of motivational processes within the human perception–action cycle (in particular, the CLARION cognitive architecture). First, some background relevant to studying and modeling motivational processes, structures, and representations is discussed. Then, the CLARION cognitive architecture is described. Some simulation results of human motivation and personality from CLARION are then briefly reviewed, and their implications and the future directions outlined.
KeywordsHuman Motivation Personality Type Bottom Level Implicit Knowledge Cognitive Architecture
This work has been supported in part by ONR grant N00014-08-1-0068 (to Ron Sun), as well as by ARI contract W74V8H-05-K-0002 (to Ron Sun and Robert Mathews). Thanks to all the reviewers who provided comments on an earlier version.
- Anderson, J. R. (1993). Rules of the Mind. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, NJ.Google Scholar
- Anderson, J. and C. Lebiere (1998). The Atomic Components of Thought. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, NJ.Google Scholar
- Bach, J. (2009). Principles of Synthetic Intelligence. Oxford University Press, New York.Google Scholar
- Caprara, G. V. and D. Cervone (2000). Personality: Determinants, Dynamics, and Potentials. Cambridge University Press, New York.Google Scholar
- Digman, J. M. (1990). Personality structure: Emergence of the five-factor model. Annual Review of Psychology, 41, 417–440.Google Scholar
- Doerner, D. (2003). The mathematics of emotions. In: Frank Detje, D. D. and Schaub, H. (eds.), Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Cognitive Modeling, Bamberg, Germany, pp. 75–79.Google Scholar
- Hull, C. (1943). Principles of Behavior: An Introduction to Behavior Theory. D. Appleton-Century Company, New York.Google Scholar
- James, W. (1890). The Principles of Psychology. Dover, New York.Google Scholar
- Maner, J. K., D. T. Kenrick, S. L. Neuberg, D. V. Becker, T. Robertson, B. Hofer, A. Delton, J. Butner, and M. Schaller (2005). Functional projection: How fundamental social motives can bias interpersonal perception. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 88, 63–78.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mazzoni, G. and Nelson, T. (eds.), (1998). Metacognition and Cognitive Neuropsychology. Erlbaum, Mahwah, NJ.Google Scholar
- McDougall, W. (1936). An Introduction to Social Psychology. Methuen & Co., London.Google Scholar
- McFarland, D. (1989). Problems of Animal Behaviour. Longman Publishing, Singapore.Google Scholar
- Murray, H. (1938). Explorations in Personality. Oxford University Press, New York.Google Scholar
- Newell, A. (1990). Unified Theories of Cognition. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
- Rosenbloom, P., J. Laird, and A. Newell (1993). The SOAR Papers: Research on Integrated Intelligence. MIT, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
- Shoda, Y. and W. Mischel (1998). Personality as a stable cognitive–affective activation network: Characteristic patterns of behavior variation emerge from a stable personality structure. In Read, S. J. and Miller, L. C. (eds.), Connectionist models of social reasoning and social behavior. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., Mahwah, NJ, pp. 175–208.Google Scholar
- Sun, R. (1994). Integrating Rules and Connectionism for Robust Commonsense Reasoning. New York. John Wiley and Sons.Google Scholar
- Sun, R. (2002). Duality of the Mind: A Bottom-up Approach Toward Cognition. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, NJ.Google Scholar
- Sun, R. (2003). A Tutorial on CLARION 5.0. Technical Report, Cognitive Science Department, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. http://www.cogsci.rpi.edu/rsun/sun.tutorial.pdf.
- Sun, R. and N. Wilson (2009). A computational personality model within a comprehensive cognitive architecture. Technical Report, Cognitive Science Department, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.Google Scholar
- Toates, F. (1986). Motivational Systems. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.Google Scholar
- Tolman, E.C. (1932). Purposive Behavior in Animals and Men. Century, New York.Google Scholar
- Tyrell, T. (1993). Computational Mechanisms for Action Selection. Ph.D Thesis, Oxford University, Oxford, UK.Google Scholar
- Watkins, C. (1989). Learning with Delayed Rewards. Ph.D Thesis, Cambridge University, Cambridge, UK.Google Scholar
- Weiner, B. (1992). Human Motivation: Metaphors, Theories, and Research. Sage, Newbury Park, CA.Google Scholar
- Wright, I. P., and A. Sloman (1997). MINDER1: An Implementation of a Proto-emotional Agent Architecture. Technical Report CSRP-97-1, University of Birmingham, School of Computer Science. (Available from ftp://ftp.cs.bham.ac.uk/pub/tech-reports/1997/CSRP-97-01.ps.gz).