Magnetic Heads

Part of the Nanostructure Science and Technology book series (NST)


Figure 6.1 shows how rapidly the areal density of hard disk drives (HDD) has been increasing over the past 20 years [1]. Several critical innovations were necessary to bring about such rapid progress in the field of magnetic recording [2]. One of the most significant innovations from the viewpoint of material improvement was the electrodeposition of permalloy (Ni80Fe20), which was introduced by IBM in 1979 as the core material of a thin-film inductive head to increase the magnetic recording density [3]. After the introduction of the magneto-resistive (MR) element as the read head and the electrodeposited permalloy as the write head by IBM in 1991 [4], the rate of increase in the recording density of HDDs jumped from 30% per year to 60% per year. Recently, a giant magneto-resistive (GMR) element has been used for the read element instead of the MR element. The rate of increase in the recording density jumped to over 100% per year in 1999, which is an incredible rate of increase. Since 2002, however, the rate of increase has decreased to 30%; thus, new innovations are required to maintain the rate of increase. In 2004, the practical use of perpendicular magnetic recording instead of longitudinal magnetic recording was announced [5]. This system is a critical innovation for developing high-performance HDD systems with high-recording density. The design of the magnetic recording head was changed because of the change of the recording system.


Hard Disk Drive Magnetic Recording Electroless Deposition Soft Magnetic Property Soft Magnetic Material 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Osaka T (2000) Electrodeposition of highly functional thin films for magnetic recording devices of the next century. Electrochim Acta 45:3311–3321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Andricacos PC, Robertson N (1988) Future directions in electroplated materials for thin-film recording heads. IBM J Res Develop 42:671–680CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Jones RE Jr (1980) IBM 3370 film head design and fabrication. IBM Disk Storage Technology, pp 6–9Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Tsang C et al (1990) Gigabit density recording using dual-element MR inductive heads on thin-film disks. IEEE Trans Magn MAG-26:1689–1693CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Tanaka Y (2005) Recording performance and system integration of perpendicular magnetic recording. J Magn Magn Mater 287:468–474CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Osaka T (1998) Development of soft magnetic materials with high Bs by the electroplating method and their application to an MR write head core. J Magn Soc Jpn 22:1182–1188Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Castellani EE et al (1978) U.S. Patent 4102756Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Powers JV, Romankiw LT (1972) U.S. Patent 3652442Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hoffmann H (1964) Quantitative calculation of magnetic ripple of uniaxial thin permalloy films. J Appl Phys 35:1790–1798CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bozorth RM (1951) Ferromagnetism. Van Nostrand, New York, NY, p 160Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Yoshizawa Y et al (1988) New Fe-based soft magnetic-alloys composed of ultrafine grain-structure. J Appl Phys 64:6044–6046CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ishiwata N (1987) Magnetic and structural-properties of dual ion-beam sputtered pure iron films. IEEE Trans Magn MAG-23:2152–2154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Todd I et al (2000) Magnetic properties of ultrasoft-nanocomposite FeAlSiBNbCu alloys. J Magn Magn Mater 215:272–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Huijbregtse J et al (1998) High-frequency permeability of soft-magnetic Fe-Hf-O films with high resistivity. J Appl Phys 83:1569–1574CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Sato T et al (1998) New applications of nanocrystalline Fe(Co–Fe)-Hf-O magnetic films to micromagnetic devices. J Appl Phys 83:6658–6660CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Liao SH (1987) High moment CoFe thin-films by electrodeposition. IEEE Trans Magn MAG-23:2981–2983CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Anderson NC, Chesnutt RB (1987) U.S. Pattent 4661216Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Shinoura O (1994) Soft magnetic properties of electrodeposited CoNiFe films. J Magn Soc Jpn 18:277–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Nakamura A (1996) Preparation and magnetic properties of CoNiFe thin film by electrodeposition. J Surf Finish Soc Jpn 47:934–938CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Takai M (1997) Electrochemical preparation of soft magnetic CoNiFeS film with high saturation magnetic flux density and high resistivity. J Electrochem Soc 144:L203–L204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Takai M (1997) High frequency permeability of electrodeposited CoNiFeS films with high B s and high ρ. J Magn Soc Jpn 21(S2):443–446Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kim DH et al (1996) Electroless Ni-Fe-B alloy plating solution using DMAB as a reducing agent. Plat Surf Finish 83:78–80Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Takai M (1995) Magnetic properties of electroless-deposited NiFeB and electrodeposited NiFe alloy thin films. IEICE Trans Electron E78-C:1530–1535Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Osaka T et al (1992) Co-based soft magnetic-films produced by electroless deposition. J Electrochem Soc 139:1311–1314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Osaka T et al (1994) Preparation of electroless-deposited CoFeB soft-magnetic films with high saturation magnetic-flux density. Denki Kagaku (presently Electrochemistry) 62:987–988Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Osaka T et al (1994) Soft magnetic properties of electroless-deposited CoFeB films. J Magn Soc Jpn 18(S1):183–186Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Yokoshima T et al (2000) Electroless CoNiFeB soft magnetic thin films with high corrosion resistance. J Electroanal Chem 491:197–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Osaka T et al (1998) A soft magnetic CoNiFe film with high saturation magnetic flux density and low coercivity. Nature 392:796–798CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Osaka T (1998) New soft magnetic CoNiFe plated films with high Bs=2.0–2.1 T. IEEE Trans Magn 34:1432–1434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ohashi K et al (1998) Newly developed inductive write head with electroplated CoNiFe film. IEEE Trans Magn 34:1462–1464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Osaka T et al (1999) Influence of crystalline structure and sulfur inclusion on corrosion properties of electrodeposited CoNiFe soft magnetic films. J Electrochem Soc 146:2092–2096CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Tabakovic I et al (2000) Organic additives in the electrochemical preparation of soft magnetic CoNiFe films. J Electrochem Soc 147:219–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Liu X et al (2000) Electrodeposition of soft, high moment Co–Fe–Ni thin films. J Appl Phys 87:5410–5412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Kim KH et al (2000) The magnetic properties of nanocrystalline Fe-Co(Cr)-Hf-N thin films. J Appl Phys 87:5248–5250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Kim SR et al (2000) Soft magnetic properties of as-sputtered Fe–Al–O films. J Magn Magn Mater 215:365–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Ohnuma S (1996) High-frequency magnetic properties in metal-nonmetal granular films. J Appl Phys 79:5130–5135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Morikawa T (1998) Soft magnetic properties of Co-Cr-O granular films. J Appl Phys 83:6664–6666CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Ohnuma S et al (2001) Co-Zr-O nano-granular thin films with improved high frequency soft magnetic properties. IEEE Trans Magn 37:2251–2254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Ohnuma S et al (1999) Magnetostriction and soft magnetic properties of (Co1xFex)–Al–O granular films with high electrical resistivity. J Appl Phys 85:4574–4576CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Wang SX et al (2000) Sandwich films-properties of a new soft magnetic material. Nature 407:150–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Sun NX, Wang SX (2000) Soft high saturation magnetization (Fe0.7Co0.3)(1−x)Nx thin films for inductive write heads. IEEE Trans Magn 36:2506–2508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Shintaku K et al (2003) High-Bs Fe–Co–Al–O soft magnetic films. J Appl Phys 93:6474–6476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Kim EH et al (2001) Permeability enhancement in Fe/CoNbZr multilayers prepared by Ar/H2 mixed gas sputtering and heat treatment. J Magn Magn Mater 233:L142–L146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    McNeill KA et al (2000) Effect of lamination period and deposition angle on FeAlN-Al2O3 multilayers. J Appl Phys 87:5837–5839CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Hong J et al (1999) Magnetic properties and high-frequency responses of high moment FeTaN/AlN laminates for high-data-rate magnetic recording. IEEE Transactions on Magnetics vol 35:2502–2504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Choi KK et al (2003) High Frequency Properties of CoZrNb/Fe–C Multilayer Films. Trans Magn Soc Jpn 3:55–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Chen YJ et al (2000) Laminated FeRhN films for high speed writers. IEEE Trans Magn 36:3476–3478CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Brenner A (1963) Electrodeposition of Alloys. Academic, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Dahms H, Croll IM (1965) The anomalous codeposition of iron-nickel alloys. J Electrochem Soc 112:771–775CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Hessami S, Tobias CW (1989) A mathematical-model for anomalous codeposition of nickel-iron on a rotating-disk electrode. J Electrochem Soc 136:3611–3616CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Shinoura O (1995) Electrodeposition of Ni–Fe–Mo multilayered soft-magnetic films with high specific resistance. Denki Kagaku (presently Electrochemistry) 63:473–478Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Takai M et al (1998) Electrodeposition of soft magnetic Ni–Fe-based films with high resistivity. J Surf Finish Soc Jpn 49:292–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Takai M (1998) Increasing the resistivity of NiFeP films by means of electrodeposition. J Magn Soc Jpn 22:629–632CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Hoshino K (1999) Magnetic properties and thermal stability of electroplated NiFeCr and NiFeMo films with high resistivity. IEEE Trans Magn 35:3433–3435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Ohashi K et al (1999) Write performance of heads with a 2.1-tesla CoNiFe pole. IEEE Trans Magn 35:2538–2540CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Nonaka Y et al (2000) Co–Ni–Fe write heads with a 10 μm yoke length for high-speed recording. IEEE Trans Magn 36:2514–2516CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Sogawa Y (2000) Preparation of electrodeposited high-Bs and high-ρ CoNiFe thin films by Mo addition. J Magn Soc Jpn 24:699–702CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Yokoshima T (2003) Effect of carbon inclusion on properties of electrodeposited CoNoFeMo thin films. In: Krongelb S et al (eds) Electrochemical society proceedings, vol 2002–27. The Electrochemical Society Inc, pp 365–375Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Yokoshima T et al (1999) Increasing the resistivity of electrodeposited high Bs CoNiFe thin film. IEEE Trans Magn 35:2499–2501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Kaseda M et al (2000) Preparation and characterization of electrodeposited high-Bs CoNiFe thin films with high resistivity and improvement of their corrosion resistance. In: Romankiw LT et al (eds) Electrochemical society proceedings, vol 99–34. The Electrochemical Society Inc, pp 263–272 Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Osaka T (2001) Effects of impurities on resistivity of electrodeposited high-Bs CoNiFe-based soft magnetic thin films. IEEE Trans Magn 37:1761–1763CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Osaka T et al (2003) A high moment CoFe soft magnetic thin film prepared by electrodeposition. Electrochem Solid State Lett 6:C53–C55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Yokoshima T et al (2004) Preparation of high-Bs, Co-Fe soft magnetic thin films by electrodeposition. IEEE Trans Magn 40:2332–2334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Milazzo G, Caroli S (1978) Tables of standard electrode potentials. Wiley, New York, NY, p 320Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Chemical Society of Japan (1984) Chemical handbook-basic volume, 3rd edn. Maruzen, Tokyo p. II–179Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Kim DH (1994) Preparation of soft magnetic films by electroless Ni-Fe-P plating. J Surf Finish Soc Jpn 45:203–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Kim DH et al (1995) Soft-magnetic films by electroless Ni–Co–P plating. J Electrochem Soc 142:3763–3767CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Sobue M et al (2002) Increase of the resistivity of electroless-deposited high-Bs CoNiFeB thin films. IEEE Trans Magn 38:2228–2230CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.High Density Interconnection Group, Nanoelectronics Research Institute (NeRI), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba Central 2TsukubaJapan

Personalised recommendations