Nanotechnology for Material Development on Future Energy Storage

  • Kiyoshi Kanamura
  • Hirokazu Munakata
  • Kaoru Dokko
Part of the Nanostructure Science and Technology book series (NST)


Various kinds of energy devices have been developed as power sources for portable electronic devices and electric vehicles. Fuel cell, rechargeable lithium ion battery, and super capacitor are the most interesting devices, and they have been extensively studied to improve their electrochemical performance around the world [1, 2]. In these electrochemical devices, chemical energy is directly converted to electric energy through charge transfer process occurring at an interface between electrode and electrolyte. The electrochemical reactions take place at the interface and their reaction rates strongly depend on the nature of interface consisting of electrode and electrolyte materials. In some case, the electrode reaction is so slow that the electrode reaction kinetics should be carefully investigated in order to improve charge transfer reaction rate. On the other hand, the slow electrode reaction can be technically overcome by a large interface area for the electrode reaction, leading to an improvement of apparent reaction rate. For example, the true surface area of the porous electrode used in practical battery and fuel cell is much larger than that of flat electrode. When the surface area is 100 times larger than that of flat electrode, the apparent electrode reaction rate is also 100 times. However, this is too simple to estimate the advantage of the porous electrode. The porous electrode has so many problems that the reaction rate may not become 100 times [3]. Figure 4.1 shows the electrode reaction occurring on flat electrode and porous electrode. In the case of the flat electrode, the electrode reaction takes place uniformly on an entire electrode surface. On the other hand, the electrode reaction taking place on the porous electrode surface has a distribution of electrode reaction rate depending on its porous nature and a kind of electrode material. For example, both electronic and ionic conductivities of porous electrode are very important properties to establish an electrochemical interface and to realize apparently high charge transfer rate. One of the key technologies for porous electrodes used in electrochemical energy conversion system is a fabrication process of porous electrode with three-dimensionally ordered porous structures. Recently, three-dimensionally ordered macroporous materials have been extensively studied on various application fields, such as catalyst, photonic material, sensor, and so on [4–11]. At first silica porous materials have been prepared by using colloidal crystal templating method. This study has inspired a lot of scientists working in the field of material science. So far, many kinds of macroporous materials, such as zirconia, titania, carbon, and so on, have been successfully prepared and applied to various applications. In this section, three applications of three-dimensionally ordered materials to electrochemical energy conversion systems are introduced.


Composite Membrane Colloidal Crystal Porous Electrode Polystyrene Bead Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Tarascon JM, Armand M (2001) Nature 414:359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Savadogo O (1998) J New Mater Electrochem Syst 90:47Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Newman J, Electrochemical Systems, Third Edition, John Wiley and Sons, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Stein A, Schroden RC (2001) Curr Opin Solid State Mater Sci 5:553CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Holland BT, Blanford CF, Stein A (1998) Science 281:538CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Subramanian G, Manoharan VN, Thorne JD, Pine DJ (1999) Adv Mater 11:1261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Velev OD, Kaler EW (2000) Adv Mater 12:531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bartlett PN, Baumberg JJ, Birkin PR, Ghanem MA, Netti MC (2002) Chem Mater 14:2199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Jiang P, Cizeron J, Bertone JF, Colvin VL (1999) J Am Chem Soc 121:7957CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Jiang P, Hwang KS, Mittleman DM, Bertone JF, Colvin VL (1999) J Am Chem Soc 121:11630CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Zakhidov AA, Baughman RH, Iqbal Z, Cui C, Khayrullin I, Dantas SO, Marti J, Ralchenko VG (1998) Science 282:897CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Dokko K, Akutagawa N, Isshiki Y, Hoshina K, Kanamura K (2005) Solid State Ionics 176:2345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kanamura K, Mitsui T, Rho YH, Umegaki T (2002) Key Engineering Materials 228–229:285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Rho Young Ho, Kanamura K, Umegaki T (2003) J Electrochem Soc 150(1):A107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ohzuku T, Ueda A (1994) J Electrochem Soc 141:2972CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Long JW, Dunn B, Rolison DR, White HS (2004) Chem Rev 104:4463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gierke TD, Munn GE, Wilson FC (1981) J Polym Sci Polym Phys Ed 19:1687CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Heitner-Wirguin C (1996) J Membr Sci 120:1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ren X, Springer TE, Zawodzinski TA, Gottesfeld S (2000) J Electrochem Soc 147:466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Jung DH, Cho SY, Peck DH, Shin DR, Kim JS (2002) J Power Sourc 106:173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bauer F, Willert-Porada M (2004) J Membr Sci 233:141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Yamaguchi T, Miyata F, Nakao S (2003) J Membr Sci 214:283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Zhou J, Childs RF, Mika AM (2005) J Membr Sci 254:89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kikukawa T, Kuraoka K, Kawabe K, Yamashita M, Fukumi K, Hirao K, Yazawa T (2005) J Membr Sci 259:161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Velev OD, Jede TA, Lobo RF, Lenhoff AM (1998) Chem Mater 10:3597CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Cassagneau T, Caruso F (2002) Adv Mater 14:34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Conway BE (1999) Electrochemical Super Capacitors. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publisers, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Salitra G, Soffer A, Eliad L, Cohen Y, Aurbach D (2000) J Electrochem Soc 147:2486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Endo M, Maeda T, Takeda T, Kim YJ, Koshiba K, Hara H, Dresselhaus MS (2001) J Electrochem Soc 148:A910CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Shiraishi S, Kurihara H, Shi L, Nakayama T, Oya A (2002) J Electrochem Soc 149:A855CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Frackowiak E, Delpeux S, Jurewicz K, Szostak K, Cazorla-Amoros D, Beguin F (2002) Chem Phys Lett 361:35CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kiyoshi Kanamura
    • 1
  • Hirokazu Munakata
    • 1
  • Kaoru Dokko
    • 1
  1. 1.Graduate School of Urban Environmental SciencesTokyo Metropolitan UniversityHachiojiJapan

Personalised recommendations