Fuel cells, which convert chemical energy directly into electrical energy with high efficiency and low emission, are currently attracting interest because of their huge potential for power generation in stationary and portable devices, transport applications, and sustainable energy production. Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) are especially attractive as portable power sources because of characteristics such as simple construction, easy operation, liquid fuel, and high efficiency [1, 2].
DMFCs use methanol as fuel and generate electricity through the electrochemical reaction of methanol in the presence of catalyst. They are similar to polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) as both types of cells use a polymer membrane as the electrolyte. The structure of DMFCs is simple because the system does not require fuel reforming steps to take protons out of alcohol or fossil fuel, which are required for hydrogen–oxygen fuel cells . In addition, methanol, commonly used alcohol, has the advantage of high energy density, offering the consumer the potential for longer operating time and system with increased functionality.
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