The polarization model predicts that the interaction between nanoparticles depends not only on the surface charge density, but also on the surface dipole density. As the concentration of electrolyte increases, the surface charge density decreases, due to the recombination of ions with surface groups, but the density of surface dipoles increases. At relatively low salt concentrations, the repulsion due to the double layer is dominant and decreases with increasing ionic strength; however, at high electrolyte concentrations, the repulsive force due to surface dipoles becomes dominant and increases with increasing ionic strength. Consequently, there is a minimum in the repulsion between nanoparticles. This mechanism explains the restabilization of some colloids at high ionic strengths [7.1].
Virial Coefficient Decay Length Polarization Model Hamaker Constant Surface Dipole
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