Special Considerations in Common GI Diseases, Obesity, and Following Bariatric Surgery

  • Angelo A. Licata
  • Susan E. Williams


Contrary to popular belief, obesity is not good for bones nor is it protective against the development of osteoporosis. Common consequences of obesity such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, and several of the common medications used to treat elevated blood glucose significantly increase the risk of osteoporosis and fragility fracture.


Obesity Osteoporosis Citrate Anemia Neuropathy 

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Angelo A. Licata
    • 1
  • Susan E. Williams
    • 2
  1. 1.Departments of Biomedical Engineering and Endocrinology-MetabolismCleveland ClinicClevelandUSA
  2. 2.Endocrinology, Diabetes and MetabolismThe Cleveland Clinic FoundationClevelandUSA

Personalised recommendations